My interest in African Ancestry pertains to Melungeons and Jamestown 19 odd. The earliest recorded group of Africans brunt from Angola, The Bantu. In that contest here are two articles you can read of my note regarding, this admixture and Native American
Both models involve continuous gene flow from a European source, and the Mexican American model also includes continuous Native American gene flow. The best-fit model for African Americans involves admixture, starting 15 generations ago, between individuals of African ancestry and a population of mixed European and Native American ancestry. This model suggests that 70% of the European ancestry in today’s African Americans dates back to European gene flow 7–8 generations ago.
The Bantu expansion occurred ∼4,000 years ago, originating in Cameroon or Nigeria and expanding throughout sub-Saharan Africa (40, 41). The clustering of the Xhosa, Fang, Bamoun, and Kongo populations, all of which are Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, likely reflects a Bantu migration from Nigeria/Cameroon expanding toward the south. Although we have limited sample sizes (with three of our populations having sample sizes of less than 10), the relative order of clustering (the East-West axis, followed by the North-South axis) suggests that the strongest differentiating axis among the African populations is linguistic classification corresponding to Chadic and Nilo-Saharan vs. Niger-Kordofanian ancestry. The relatively weaker North-South axis may result from the genetic similarity among the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic groups because of their recent common ancestry. Although sampled in Nigeria, the very distinct Fulani are part of a nomadic pastoralist population that occupies a broad geographical range across Central and Western Africa. Analyses of microsatellite and insertion/deletion polymorphisms indicate that they share ancestry with Niger-Kordofanian, North African, and Central African Nilo-Saharan populations, as well as low levels of European and/or Middle Eastern ancestry (2). Exempting the Fulani, our LD analyses show no large differences in rates of LD decay among our sampled African populations, with all populations exhibiting a faster decay of LD (i.e., larger inferred effective population size) than previously characterized populations of European ancestry (see SI Text).
Interestingly, the Kongo population does not follow the overall trend of East-West and North-South clustering. The Kongo population’s genetic proximity to geographically distant Bantu populations from Cameroon could be explained by the genetic similarity of Bantu-speaking populations in the region, as seen in the FRAPPE analyses (Fig. 1). Alternatively, although these individuals self-identified as Kongo and were refugees from locations within the Democratic Republic of Congo, the samples were collected in Cameroon; therefore, self-identified ancestry might poorly represent the long-term geographical origins or may reflect recent admixture.
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