[User 'ymidualc' posted a request for info on the origin of the SSA II marker on 10 Feb 2016 under the earlier post, Origin of SSA III marker.
I responded and am now re-posting this response to a new topic heading, for anyone who may be interested in the origin of the SSA II marker.]
In response to the question by 'ymidualc' concerning the origin of the SSA II marker:
While I don’t have the SSA II (though I have SSA III and SSA IV – see my profile at the end of this post), I think I can give you a reasonable answer here.
Since the ethnic panel report from dna consultants states that SSA II originates in southwest Africa and includes West Africans, it is more than likely a marker that was passed along through descendants of the Atlantic African slave trade, which began fifty years before Columbus made his first voyage to the Americas.
This early beginning means the slave trade went to Europe first.
Having begun in 1441, by about the year 1500 (the start of the 16th century), almost 200,000 African slaves had been transported to Europe and the islands in the Atlantic, key word here for many readers being “Europe.”
Not that many people are aware that Europe had quite a number of African slaves imported during the years of the Atlantic African slave trade. However, most of Europe abolished slavery well before slavery was abolished in the Americas, which meant that there were descendants of African slaves who intermarried into local European populations as citizens and not slaves, beginning in the late 1700’s. This is in addition to those who were freed in the early years, since slavery really began as indentured servitude, where the indentured West African servants were freed after their period of service - this was true even in North America. Intermarriage with local populations after they were freed was not uncommon. It was only later that the Americas and the islands in the Atlantic began to enforce an inherited slavery without possibility of freedom.
This occurred ALL across Europe, not just in Spain and Portugal, which is the generally advertised version of events.
With a beginning in 1441 of West African slavery in Europe and an ending in the late 1700’s/early 1800’s in Europe, it is very easy to see how this marker could have been passed hundreds of years ago through slave trade descendants to Romani, Melungeons, Basques, and to inhabitants of the Levant, which are the additional populations that dna consultants gives in their ethnic panel report.
[For info on the history of the Atlantic African slave trade, I’m referencing http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr1.html ]
My own dna consultants ethnic panel results are: European I, European II, Eastern European I, Eastern European II, Jewish I, Jewish III, Asian I, SSA III, SSA IV. My maternal aunt has Ashkenazi Jewish – same as Jewish II – from a different testing company and I would have tested my parents, but they passed away in 2002 & 2003 - my aunt has not tested with dna consultants.
My testing results from two other dna companies give: Ireland/Scotland (45%), Scandinavia (20%), Great Britain (16%), Europe West (9%), with the other 10% divided between Italy/Greece, Iberian Peninsula, Europe East, North Africa, East Asia, Sardinia, Mali, Nigeria, South Asia. My maternal aunt’s dna results from another company gives a small percentage of Ashkenazi Jewish - my aunt has not tested with dna consultants.
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