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English Dominion Additional info II

Moderators: dpyates, jakayj, suelevin1, dnacommunities, teresapy, D J Thornton

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 4:21 am

https://archive.org/stream/mississippip ... s_djvu.txt

Creek Villages and their Population.

Ress en Sement Des Villages Sauvages de la Porte des Alyba-

(Sic Recensement)

Nombre de

Noms des Villages^ Monde® Distance du Fort^



50 hommes®

300 Pas®



un quart de Lieu^



un quart de Lieu



1^ Lieu



If Lieu



3 Lieu




. 50



KanaM Kes at Couchus . . .

. 40



Fouchat chis et touchas. . . .

. 60




. 50



D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 4:21 am

'Census of Savage Villages at Fort Alybamons.
’'Names of Villages.

^Number of Population.

^Distanee from Fort.



^One-quarter league.





. . . . 70

5 L


. . . . 15

6 L


. . . . 80

7 L


. . . . 15

10 L


. . . . 10

7 L


. ... 200

10 L

Ouy Dutches

. . . . 15

13 L


• • { 200

11 L


.. 1



Nombre de

Noms des Villages^

Monde ^

Distance du Fort®



. . . . 40

3 L

Tchitchoufke |

Ouyoukas [ 100

Citchitchapas J

Kalalekis 130

Okchanyas 130

Youfalas 100


Tchoulouchpouque ....



Ouakokayes 100

Pakanatalaachis 50

Petlako 40

Abekoutches 130

Conchus 20

4„ 5„ 8 L






12 L

15 L












D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 4:22 am

Names of Villages.
^Number of population.
^Distance from Fort.



Chalakagay 50 hommes* 25 Lieux*

Petilchaouanons 50 3 L


Tchikachas 40

Natchez 20

Nombre de

Nonas des Villages® monde^ Distance du Fort®


Kaouitas 150 30 L

Chaouakl4 50 31 L

Kachetas 150 32 L

Ouyoutchis 50 33 L

Ouchoutchis 50 34 L

Tchiahas 160 34 L

Aeykite 50 35 L

Apalatchikolis 60 36 L

Okonis 50 37 L

Omolquet 30 38 L

Choothlo 50 39 L

Choothlotchy 50 40 L

Youfalas 60 42 L

Tchoualas 40 45 L

Oeyakbe 30 45 L


® El yu [II ya] doutres Villages qui devonent du ressort des



^Names of Villages.

^Number of Population.

^Distance from Fort.

“There are other Villages that come under the jurisdiction of the Spaniard and
only seldom frequent Port Alybamons. “El yu” is obviously a misinterpretation
of the original MS.



D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 4:23 am

Hpugenols (Espagnols) et qui ne frequentent que try raranent
(tr^s rarement) Le Porte des Alybamons.









Endorsed (29.) Names of the Villages — inhabited by the Creek
— Indians & the N« in each — Village. — in Majr Farmar’s letter
— of 24th Jany 1764.

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 4:34 am

List of the French taking the Oaths of Allegiance.

A List of the Inhabitants of Mobille
have taken the Oaths of Allegiance and
tannick Majesty King George the third.—
Harpain Lagautrais Simon Favre
Gerome Matulick Francois Mersurey

Orbame Demoux
Jean Mitchell
Francois Daran
Andre Boullon
Pierre Breneaux
Manuel Lopez
Caurangau die

Hugo Emestus

Anthony Narbon
Jean Baptist
Augustin Nichs

Daniel Jacqueri
Claude le Brun

in West Florida who
Fidelity to His Brit-

Jean Baptist Alex-

Angelica Lardas
John Baptist

Fredrick le Estap
Piere Martin
Joseph Margot
John Ham
Wersel Laser



Piere Rochon Piere Cajot

Charles Vidal Joseph Mellon

Sr Chr De Rouville Jean Favre
Antoney de Verney Jean Baptist le Flau

Maurice Dullivier Renoroy

Jean Claude Dupont Jean Claude
Piere Lanson Martalle

Jacques Lusein
Jean Baham
Jean francois
Louis forneret
Philip Clenpetre
Francois Barba
Jacob Martin
Matis Tresnac
Corneret Keller
Louis Carriere
Jean Lafon
Joseph Chastang
Joseph Badon
Valentine Dubroca
Hans Willerips
Francois Colin
Joseph Bouzage
Pare Ferdinand
Moris Durand
Piere Gabl
Jacco Amon

Piere Zuzan
Louis francois

Mariane Feavre
Piere Joley
Charles Mioy
Jean Baptist Nicas
Johannes Robot
Louis de flandre
Joseph Colo mb
Mariane Marcellin
Jean Millon
Juliet de brose
Nicholas Delille
Nicholas Lardnare
Bapt Chrisn
Louis Chrs
Gabriel St Lorain
Francois Alancet
Jean Rocquet
Francois Gerard
Jean Bapt Levine
Jean Baptt le Flau
Francois Favre
Isabell Alexander

Philip Armon
Piere Rochon
Augustin Rochon
Harpain la
gautrais Junr
Francois Alexander
Bartholemew Grelot
Nicholas Calco
Jean Baptst
John Bapt Lorin-

Piere Gilloroey
Nicholas Cham-

Anthony Lorraine
Francois Chenette
Joseph Bougenon
Maran Breaunea
Piere Hewit
Hendriet Hewit
Francois Remue
Jean Frans Milsant
Nichs Bourie
Jacque Arnald
Henret de livoy
Mungo Law
William Favre
Francois Caminada
Magdelen Madelon
Francois Barnard
Jean Sebin Braquet

Rob* Farmar

Majr of 34 th Regimt

Endorsed List of Inhabitants of — Mobille, who have taken — the
Oaths. 112 — in Major Farmar ’s Lre of — 2d October. 1764.

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
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Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:12 am


AT A CONGRESS held at the Town of Mobille in the Province
of West Florida, By His Excellency George Johnstone Esquire
Governor of the said Province, and the Honourable John Stuart
Esquire, His Majestys Sole Agent & Superintendant of Indian
Affairs in the Southern District of North America And the
Several Chiefs and Warriors of the Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations.



Tuesday March 26tt 1765.


His Excellency George Johnstone Esqr Governor of West Florida
The Honourable John Stuart Esqr Superintendant &ca
and the following Members of His Majesty’s Council for the Prov-
ince of West Florida vizt
The Honourable James Macpherson 1
The Honourable Wilham Struthers i Esquires
The Honourable Francis Demorsier ]
and also the following Indian Chiefs —

Paya Mattaha, principal Leader & Several other Chiefs of the
Chickasaw Nation —

AUbamon Mingo

Nashuba Mingo Great Medal Chiefs

Tomatle Mingo of the Chacta Nation

Chulustamastabe j
Mmgo Huma 1
Pusha Huma J

The Governor & Superintendant after the usual Ceremony
of Smoaking the Calumet With the Indians aforesaid, Opened
the Congress, and Prayers were Read by the Reverend Mr
Hart: on which Occasion the Indians behaved with great
Decency & Listned with the utmost Attention, after Governor
Johnstone Delivered the following Speech — Vizt

Friends and Brothers

The Great King George who sent me here as a Governor of
those Lands, Ceded to him by the French and Spaniards, after
God had been pleased to give him the Victory over them in all
parts of the World, directed at the same time, that Mr Stuart,
the person whom he base appointed, the General Protector of
all your Rights, should meet you here, in order with his assist-
ance to settle a perfect Peace & Alhance between the White &
the Red Children of the King.

We have accordingly invited you together for that purpose,
& it now gives me the greatest pleasure to meet so many Renown-
ed Warriors and worthy Men on that desirable end — as it base
been the misfortune of many among you to pursue different



Interests from us in the former part of your life, which often
leaves a Jealousy in the mind on a Subsequent Reconcilement,
in order to Remove every Circumstance of this kind which
might Interrupt the perfect pleasure which a Sincere Peace
continually came along with it. We have therefore made Choice
of Monsieur Montbereaut, who was your ancient Friend to man-
age the affairs of the Indians in this Province under us, and who
being better Acquainted with our Manners & also longer Ac-
quainted with you; seeing the Perfect Reconcilement which
Subsists between the French and us, so that the Cause of the
difference being removed the Effect should Cease.

The most pleasing Return which a Nation can make to the
giver of Breath, After obtaining the Victory by his means is
a gratefull Remembrance of all former favours and a Perfect
forgiveness of all former Offences; this is becoming His benev-
olence who forgiveth all our Offences, & who is the mercifull
Father of the whole World, Those then who have formerly
Lifted the Sword against us, in the various Changes which Man-
kind undergo in this Life, may therefore expect the most Perfect
Reconcilement, and that every darkned Spot is enhghtned;
Those who have adhered to us, in our adversity Shall have
Cause to Rejoice at the Steadfastness of their Conduct; you
are all Brothers, Relations, & Children of the Same Nation,
We recommend it to you to Live as Such & you shall ever find
us your common Father.

Before we proceed to any Business with one another, it is
proper to wipe off every evil impression tho ever So small.

I understand some discontent had arose amongst you from
the Long Space which had passed between the English taking
Possession of this Colony & my arrival in the Province, & Like-
wise some Confusion had happened in the Messages inviting
you to this Congress Since my arrival both of which had given

Respecting the first you know our principal habitations of
the Residence of Our Great King is far to the North of the
Rising of the Sun & far beyond the Great Waters which encom-
pass the World, Some of you have passed on the Bounding
Waves, Those can Communicate to the Rest, & tho the Skill



of SO Small an Animal as Man is Carried to the Utmost Height
in Conducting Such hughe Machines as those of Ships over so
Vast a Space & through Such Mountains of Waves, where no
Path can be found, yet we cannot Command the Blowing of
the Winds, or the Current of the Waters, which depend upon
the Spirit of the World, and therefore we are Sometimes Long
& Sometimes Short in the Passage.

Instead therefore of being now displeased at the Length of
my Delay, I hope it will rather endear me to your Sight in con-
sideration of the Troubles I have undergone in coming amongst
you, and that you will regard me with the Joy of Sons who had
lost their Father and found him again.

W”ith Respect to the Confusion which has arose from different
invitations to come down here, I must report that my eager
desire to meet you as soon as possible after my arrival had made
me dispatch a Messenger in Conjunction with your beloved
Friend Mr Stuart, to Invite you down on the 20tt of Deer,
in answer to which we were informed the Notice was so Short
you could not be assembled in the time & farther that it would
be interupting your hunting Season to call you down before
the 20tt of February, so that we readily Yielded our own Inch-
nations to your Convenience; After this day was fixed another
accident obhdged us to put off the Meeting; you know the
Short time we have been in this Province & the Impossibihty
we can as yet possess Sufficient Provisions of our Rearing for
so Numerous a Body of Men; Obhdged us to Send over the
Great Waters for a Supply, the Winds & the Weather proved
Contrary to our Wishes, so that we were under the Necessity
to put off our Meeting till its arrival, & hear I will just say that
if you do not find your Entertainment so good as you might
Expect, you must impute it to the infancy of our Settlement &
the Smallness of our Possessions here which do not afford us
Sufficient Space, even Supposing we had Sufficient time to
Raise Provisions for such a Multitude of Men.

Now that I have given Sufficient Reasons for removing every
Cause of dissatisfaction on the Points which I have heard gave
you uneasiness, I will now Proceed to the Business of our Meet-



It was the Command of the Great King George in sending
me to this Province that I should do every thing in my Power
to make his Red Children happy, it is my firm Resolution so
to do.

The first Step towards the happyness is Peace upon a Last-
ing & Honourable foundation, it is to Estabhsh this Object,
as I have said before that we have Called you together.

You Generous Friends of the Chickasaw Nation, who have
so long adhered to the Interest of the Enghsh, whom neither
Dangers could startle nor promises Seduce from our Interest,
I hope there is Little more Necessary with you than to Renew
our Ancient Alliance, which as it has continued for many Ages
to the Mutual advantage of both Nations, So I hope it will
Continue until this Earth is dissolved and the Great day of
Judgement Shall Come when God will Pronounce on the Actions
of Men; Rewarding those who have behaved justly & Punishing
those who have held a Contrary Conduct. I am Sensible there
are many Complaints on the Behaviour of the Traders amongst
you, & they have also many Complaints against the Young
men of your Nation, but the whole of those differences arise
from bringing that Poisonous Liquor called Rum into your
Country, which has distracted your Wise Nation to Such a
Degree that I never expected to have heard Concerning the
Chickasaws, as they are our People who carry the Liquor which
is the Cause of the Mischief, I consider them as the real Aggres-

Those Men who are Guilty of carrying that Liquor amongst
you ought to be Considered as your real Enemies much more
than if they hfted the Hatchet against you. He who dies in War,
his Time shall be remembered, but he who is destroyed by
Drunkenness shall be forgott hke the Hog who has perished in
the Swamp.

The Effects of War are to Leave your Wives and Children
destitute and Void of the Necessary Coverings which the Inclem-
ency of the Weather requires. Spirituous Liquors have the same
effect, they disorder your Senses, they disable you from pursuing
your hunting and other necessary Occupations, they are. the
means of Obtaining your heaviest Skins for the intoxicating



draught of a moment which leaves no Trace behind it but Sor-
row and Sickness & by which you or your Wives and your
Children are left Naked & forlorn.

If these are the disadvantages which the faithfull Chickasaws
are to Reap from the approach of their Elder Brother, it would
have been better for them we had been Sweeped from off the
face of the Earth, for it is really rendering you the Greatest
Evil, under the mask of Friendship, which is the most Wicked
of all Crimes, like that of inviting my Brother to drink of the
Cup when I am Conscious it contains a deadly poison.

Besides it is necessary I should inform you that this Liquor
is bought for almost Nothing and that you get it at a great
Price, and therefore those Traders can never be your friends,
who introduce it among you & who by that means Really defraud
you of your Property as well as destroy your health.

It is therefore my Request and it must be the Request of
every honest Man who wishes you well, that you will Seize as
your own property, every drop of Spirituous Liquors which
may be introduced amongst you, & that you never will pay to
any Man any debts which you may have Contracted on account
of Spirituous Liquors. You see that I am far from Vindicating
the White Man when they do wrong or Condemning the Red
Men without Reason, I am hear as an Equal Father to both &
you will ever find me Ready to do impartial Justice to either
Party, particularly to hear and faithfully to Redress your

But in order farther to remedy those disorders which have
Crept in among you by the Irregularities of the Traders, it is
proposed to Estabfish a Commissary at Tombeckbe who shall
be ready to hear all Complaints & do immediate Justice upon
the Offender, who shall deliver all our Talks and receive what-
ever Talks you are pleased to Send & no other Talks will be
Considered as True. In Case the Commissary is EstabUshed
it will be Necessary you Agree & Promise to give him every
kind of Assistance in Apprehending Offenders and Carrying
the Duty of his Office into Execution.

We Likewise propose to Establish an Armourer there for
Repairing your Guns.



It is the Resolution of the Great King & every one Acting
under him here to make you feel the Blessings of an Enghsh
Government, you are all Sensible how much more amply you
have been Supphed with all kinds of goods Since the Enghsh
came amongst you, I do not mean to throw any ungenerous
reflections on the French, They are undoubted a great & Noble
people, but their warmest friends will Confess that they do not
possess the Means which Providence has put into our hands of
Supplying your wants with an Equal facility.

You are Conscious of the high price of Goods of every kind
during the War between the English & French, whilst those
Creeks who were in our Interest had those very Goods in the
Greatest Abundance and at the most Reasonable Rates, the
Real Reason of this was, that all Goods Coming to your Country
must first pass over the Great Waters, and the Enghsh having
Ten Ships to one which the French Possess, & being besides
when they meet on an equal footing allways Victorious; The
Enghsh took almost all the Ships which belonged to the french,
whilst those belonging to the Enghsh were Sailing unmolested
thro’ the whole World.

From thence the French Really became Unable to Supply your
Wants, I Speak this in the Presence of an hundred frenchmen,
who can Contradict me if there is the Shghtest untruth in the

The Handkerchief which I now hold in my hand Cost in
those Miserable times, the Sum of thirty Dollars, and the Like
Can now be had for at most half a Dollar.

Since the French then were not able to Supply your wants,
how much less can the Spaniards who hardly make any Manu-
factures of their own.

But that you may Still Reap a further advantage from our
Coming amongst you we propose to Establish your Trade upon
yet a more advantageous footing for now that we can bring
our Goods directly by Water to your Country & can Convey the
Skins in Return by the same means. We think the Traders can
afford to deal with you at the Creek Prices by Weight & Measure
from whence you will have your Goods on a more Certain Method
of Traffic as well as one third Cheaper.



It is true that the distance of the Chickasaws makes it difficult
to Supply them at those Rates with any degree of Proffitt;
but we could not think that all the Nations around Should be
reaping advantages from the Cessions which are made to the
Enghsh and that the faithfull Chickasaws to whom we owe
most Should have none.

It was this Consideration that determined us to put them on
the same footing with the Rest & it was this Consideration also
which determined the Traders most ChearfuUy to accept of
our Proposition.

I understand there are some Jealousies among the Chicka-
saws, on account of Some Land which Messrs High Rider Brown
& James Colbert have Settled in their Country & that this Jeal-
ousy has been heightned by Some evil minded people.

If these men have made any Settlements in the Country of
the Chickasaws, or if any Man shall hereafter make any Settle-
ments in the Countries Reserved for the Indians, it is quite
Contrary to the orders & Intentions of the Great King, & they
shall be immediately ordered to remove from their Nation &
to Convince you all of the Truth of what I Speak, I will now
Read the Words of the Great King himself on that Subject as
follows, “And we do farther Strictly enjoin & Require all Per-
sons whatever who have either willfully or Inadvertantly Seated
themselves upon any Land within their countries described, or
upon any other Lands which not having been Ceded to or pur-
chased by us, are Still reserved to the Said Indians as aforesaid,
forthwith to remove themselves from Such Settlements.”

By which you will See that no Land can be Settled without
your Consent, but at the Same time as you are a Wise & reason-
able People, you must be Conscious it is impossible for us to
Supply your wants unless we have the Means of Subsistence
Ourselves ; you all know the Lands on the Sea Costs are so poor
they will produce Nothing, & you must also be Sensible we must
have Some place to produce Corn & Rice, otherwise we shall
hardly be able to meet you again, for as I told you before we
were obliged to Send for the Little you have now Eat from over
the Great Waters, which might have been Lost on the Passage
by many dangerous Accidents.



What Quantity may be Necessary for our Subsistance you
Renowned Chiefs and Gallant Warriors of the Chactaw Nation,
we will Leave to your own Generous determination, that it
may not be Said we have endeavoured to Bias your Judgement,
So that the Gift being free it might be dehvered without Jealousy,
and Accepted on our Parts with a double Grattitude.

Whatsoever Line shall now be fixed before so many Great
Chiefs & Venerable Warriors, We shall most Strictly abide by,
& we expect your Young Men will also adhere to the Agreement
on their part & that they will not disturb any Settlers within
that Line, Neither Kill any of the Cattle, nor Steal any of the
Horses belonging to the Inhabitants, which has been too much
practised. We farther Expect you will agree to bring in any
Negroes who may desert their Masters Service, for which a
proper reward will be allowed to the Person who Shall execute
this Service. These are the Principles on which we wish to
Establish a Lasting Peace, between the White & the Red Children
of the King.

All the White Men on the face of the Earth are now at Peace
amongst themselves the Great King wishes also to extend that
Blessing to his Red Children, that the Aged Warriors may Spend
the Remainder of their Days in Ease Plenty & Quiet & the Young
Children Rise without Misery or Sorrow.

In order to Establish so desirable an End & that no disputes
might heretofore arise, to break so good a Purpose, it was
agreed between the Kings, that the Red Men on this Side of
the Mississippi, should be Considered as English Men & those
on the other Side as French, but as the French are now going
to Leave New Orleans, which they have Ceded to the Spaniards,
the Inhabitants who Remain there will be Considered as Span-
iards, while the french who remain here will be Considered as

Instead therefore of throwing any ungenerous Reflections
against our former Enemies, which the Brave will allways avoid,
I heartily advise a perfect Reconcilement with all men, that you
Who have formerly been of the English Party will now regard
the french as your Brothers & you who have been of the French
Party will now Regard the English as your Fathers.



Wether the English or the french had prevailed was in the
power of the Mighty Spirit who made the World & all the things
therein, who maketh the Thunder to Roll & the Storms to
Blow, and the Seed to Rise & the Sun to Enlighten the Earth
& the Stars to Shine at Night. It was his pleasure to give us
the Victory over our Enemies and Estabhsh us in this province
to Supply the Wants of the Red People, whom he has left more
ignorant of those Arts which he has Communicated to us; it
is the Duty of his Creatures to Love each other & to Submit
to his Will.

The Evils which have passed are buried in Oblivion hke the
Stone which is thrown into the Great Waters.

The friendship we have received are ever Present to our
Minds like the Sunbeams Shining on the Surface to Gladden the
Hearts of our old Alhes & to engage the New to Attach Them-
selves with Fidelity.

In answer to that part of His Excellencies Speech which
mentioned Jealousies Amongst the Chickasaws, Paya Mattaha
the great Leader of the Chickasaws Said, That he did not know
how his Excellency got information of any disturbances in the
Chickasaw Nation, as there had been no bad Talks among his
people Except that some time ago a White Man had Encamped
in his Town opposite to the Chiefs house, that Some of the
White Mans Stock not being Properly kept up had destroyed
the Seeds which the Indians had put in the Ground upon which
he was oblidged to desire that proper Care might be taken to
prevent Such injuries for the future.

And then the Congress was adjourned to the 27*^ in the

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:13 am

Wednesday March 1765.


His Excellency the Governor, The Superintendant, Indian
Chiefs, Interpreters, as at the Congress Yesterday.

The Congress being opened this day with the usual Ceremo-
nies, Chulustamastabe a Chactaw Leader beged that he might
be heard which being agreed to he Said; That he Considered
himself only as a poor ignorant Savage, who has not even the
Means of Subsisting his Family, & is Conscious that he shall



make but an indifferent Speech, He is Sensible his Father is
Come from a very distant Country to See him which makes
his Heart Glad. He Sees Paya Mattaha Setting by His Fathers,
that he has allways had the greatest desire of seeing his Brother
Payamattaha, that he has allways Endeavoured by Good Talks
and every other Means to Guide his people into the right path,
and to walk therein, for he Shall allways think there is much
more Merit in dying a Natural Death by keeping the Straight
Path, than in Perishing under the Miseries of War, That he Sees
the English Flag flying which he allways looks upon as a Por-
trait of his Elder Brothers on the other Side of the Great Waters,
that formerly when War raged through the whole Indian Country,
Even among his Brothers the Chickasaws; at that time he
wished for Nothing so much as to hear Talks from his Fathers
the English; That Monsr Montbereau whom he Sees present
was then an Enemy to the English, and he rejoices now to See
him United With them; that the Enghsh & French are all
as one People, & all his White Brethren are at Peace together,
& wishes Peace may Reign all over the Earth; That when Red
Men Speak they Sometimes disguise their Real Sentiments, but
on this occasion his Fathers may observe that he bears in his
Hand a White Wing, Wherewith he fans the Words he Speaks
and thereby prevents all bad Talks from Escaping his Lips, or
Entering into his Heart: That his Brother Paya Mattaha &
he areallways Cemented together & as but one Person, that Paya
Mattaha is much his Superiour, but he is Equally well inclined
to hear good Talks, & as a Proof of the Veracity of what he Says,
He holds in his hand the Eagles Tail, the Calumet of Peace,
and Friendship which he Begs his Father will receive from his
hands as by holding that he will be Certain of his Friendly Inten-
tions, That there are here present with him this day all the Chiefs,
Headmen & Warriours of the great party, whereby his Father
may See that there are no Heart Burnings or divisions amongst
them but that they are all as one, and Unanimously Concur in
this Friendly Meeting; with their white Brethren; In order to
hear their Fathers Talk,

Then he Sat down and the other Chiefs and Warriours being
properly arranged the Superintendant Spoke as follows:




Great Chiefs, Chiefs of Villages and Warriours of the Chick-
asaw and Chactaw Nations. —

Friends and Brothers

The Supreme Being who made this World and all the Men
who dwell upon it, has been pleased to Permit the Governor of
this province & me to meet you here today.

We meet you by order of the Great King George Sovereign
& Father of the Brittish Nation, The words to be dehvered by
us are his. And by us he this day Stretches outh is Arms to receive
you. Listen therefore with Attention & let the Words we pro-
nounce be deeply engraved on your Hearts. They are Calcu-
lated for your Tranquility and Safety; you your Old Men Your
Wives and Children will be made happy by them.

When the Great Kings of England & France were at Variance
the Rage of War divided your Nation & Stained your Country
with Blood, Words of Mahce & hatred went forth and the face
of the Land was Covered with darkness. But now that it has
pleased the Great Giver of Life, Moved with Compassion for
Mankind to restore friendship between the Enghsh & French,
as foggs gathered in the Night are dispersed by the Sun, So
Words dictated by the Rage of War, Ought to be forgott in
time of Peace.

The Great King George Actuated by his own Magnanimity
and his Love for his Red Children is desirous to See them happy,
& to render them so, has determined that the English and french
Should be forever Seperated by the River Mississippi, that all
the Red Nations on this Side of it. Should have him for their
Common Father and Protector that Peace & harmony Should
Subsist between his white Subjects and them, and that Jealousy
Strife & Bloodshed, Occasioned by their different Attachments
to us & the French Should for ever Cease.

That his white Subjects & you may be more nearly Coimected,
that you may Esteem one another like Brothers of the Same
Mother, he has ordered some of them to Cross the Great Waters
& Live upon the Fruits of this Land which the Supreme Being
made for the use of Mankind, Being near one another you will
have frequent opportunities of performing Acts of Brotherly


Love & Mutually assisting each other by Relieving one anothers

The Governor to whom the Great King recommend his
Red Children in the Strongest terms has allready Spoke to you
& delivered what he had in Charge from him, I was likewise
ordered by the Great King to Come to this Country to meet you
& with the Governor to Receive you as his Children into his
Royal protection, and I have brought with me Some presents as
Marks of his favour & Paternal Care, I sent jointly with the
Governor to invite you to this meeting & now I have the Pleasure
of Seeing you here together.

And First I speak to you Chickasaw Warriours, The King
looks upon your Nation as a Son brought up in the House of
his Father, who had been from his Infancy dutyfull & had by
that Means Merited his Paternal Tenderness & care by which
he was Preserved and defended from Numberless Surrounding
Dangers, so has it been with you till this day, which is Clear
& Bright, and the Paths from your Towns to every Country
Round, are safe & Clear, And your Father Rejoices at your
happy ness & Continues to Love you.

And Next you Warriours of the great party of the Chactaw
Nation, you were as a Son tho Seperated from his Father by
Still persisting in Filial Duty merited that Return of Paternal
affection, which the Great King has this day an opportunity
of Shewing in the Assurances we are Authorized to give you
of his Royal Care & affection whilst you Continue Obedient &

And you Chactaw Warriours of the Six Villages & Small
party hke a Child early Lost & wandering you found & adoptep
a Father, you served him affectionately in his Quarrel, you
bhndly Struck your own Brothers without knowing them, and
you received Such proofs of Love & Grattitude as he was able
to Shew you. But that Adopted Father the French left you &
when you was destitute and in Danger of being Lost your True
father found & knew you. He this day Stretches out his hands
to receive you again & Buries in Perpetual Oblivion all your
past offences; he offers you his Royall & Paternal Protection
while you behave with Duty & Obedience. As a father who had



Long wished & pined with Anxiety for the Safe return of his
Children from a far distant Country Rejoices at seeing them all
safe, So do I rejoice at meeting you on this occasion.

With a view to your happyness the Great King has been
pleased to appoint me his Agent to all the Nations of Indians
on the Frontiers & to the Southward of Virginia, & has put their
affairs immediately under my care and Inspection, It is my
Sole Business to think & act for your Welfare, and to provide
for your wants, to Point out to you the Path in which you may
Safely walk. To render it Straight & plain by Removing out of
it. Whatever may injure you or hurt your feet.

It Likewise becomes incumbent upon me as your father to
advise & tell you what Sort of Conduct Will entitle you to a
Continuance of the Royal protection & Likewise to Warn you
by Shewing you the Steps by which you may most certainly
forfeit it, and plunge yourselves into irretrievable Misery.

As you are this day all received by the Great King as his
Children, it is Likewise his desire that you Live together like
Brethren of the same family. That you imitate his great Example
& from this Hour forgett all former Offences and Injuries, that
Jealousy & Party divisions may for ever cease and be Succeeded
by mutual Confidence, Acts of Friendship & Brotherly Love.

From this day forward you are to look upon yourselves,
as dependant upon the Generosity and Benevolence of the Great
King George, It is by his Permission alone that your wants
can be Supplyed that Traders can go amongst you. That you
can have Guns, Powder, Ball, Cloathes, Knives, Hatchets,
Hoes & such other Necessaries as you cannot Subsist without
and are totally incapable of making.

It is he that furnishes you with the means of Living happily
& if he withdraws his protection from you, you must be miser-
able, you must Perish, He then has a Right to expect your
Obedience & duty as all he requires of you is with a View to
your own happyness.

That you may have Justice done you on every occasion a
Person of Wisdom & Knowledge will be sent into each of your
Nations properly Authorised & Instructed, His Business will
be to hear your Talks and Transmit them to the Governours



& me, and to deliver to you such Talks as he shall be Charged
with; to inspect & examine into the Conduct of the Traders
and to procure you Justice if injured by them. As it is with a
view to your Happyness that such persons are to be sent among
you, It will be expected that you Respect & Honor them, That
you Listen to their Talks & to their Talks only, that you protect
and defend their persons and Support their Authority by giving
what Assistance they may require from you in Executing their
Offices, or in apprehending any white Person Guilty of any
great Offence, or who shall break their Contract & not fulfill the
Conditions upon which they are Permitted by the Governors of
the Provinces to go into the Nations as Traders, It will Like-
wise be expected of you, great Chiefs, that you do Listen to all
Applications from the Commissary for redressing any Injustice
done to the Traders which must be determined according to
the Sentence of any one or more of you the Great Medal Chiefs
and the Commissary; in Cases of Theft, Robbery debt or Per-
sonal Insult. You great & Small Medal Chiefs and Captains
with Gorgetts you are not to Consider your Medals and Gorgetts
Merely as Ornaments, you must Consider them as Signs of the
high offices you bear and of the Great Trust Reposed in you
by the Great King, the Presents that you receive with them, are
Considerations for the Services that are Expected from you,
which are that you do Govern and Restrain your Young people
from acts of Violence and injustice against the Traders in your
Nation or any other of His Majesties Subjects you are by fre-
quent Talks to make them Lovers of truth and honesty, & to
punish them if they mislead you in Administering Justice by
False Evidence; you are to admonish them to be Sober and
inoffensive; When they come into the Settlement they are not
to kill the Cattle of the Inhabitants or injure them in their
Persons or Estates, and as your Towns are plentifully Supplied
with Goods, you must advise your People to be industrious and
good Hunters and to depend on themselves for Cloathing their
Families and Supplying their Wants.

The Traders who carry you Supply’s of Goods, who leave
their Country and FamiUes to be usefull to and five among you,
are Considered as immediately under the Protection of the Great



Chiefs, Altho it be by the Great Kings Permission that they go
into your Country, yet they are freemen & cannot be Compelled
to go amongst you, if you Rob & Insult them, if you Treat them
with Contempt, if there Persons & Effects are not entirly Secured
& Protected, you cannot expect that they will Consent or be
Permitted to Remain among you, if they leave you, if you are
not Supplied with Necessaries what will become of you? Will
you not look upon & Treat Such People as shall Rob, insult,
or use them ill as your Greatest Enemies, as Men who are Sol-
icitous to involve you in distress & Misery?

If any Trader or other of His Majesties Subjects be killed by
an Indian, It is your Duty to give immediate Satisfaction by
putting the Murdeier to Death & if an Indian be killed by any
white Man Such white Man shall be Apprehended & Tried, &
if Found Guilty he shall be put to Death in the same manner
as if he had killed a White Man. This is what is expected from
you great & Small Medal Chiefs Captains with Gorgetts and
Warriours with Commissions.

If you perform what I have recommended to you. You will
be entitled to a Continuance of your Commissions as Marks of
His Majesties Approbation, and you will have the great Satis-
faction of procuring for your Nation Real & Solid happy ness
under his Royal protection and favour. But when I hear of
dissorders killing of Cattle Robbing Plantations, Beating and
Abusing Traders, Breaking open their Houses I shall Naturally
enquire who they are, & to what Town they belong who Shall
be Guilty of Such Actions ; I must then Conclude that the Chief
of that Town is either not Capable or Willing to do his Duty,
in either of which Cases it is my Duty to find a better Man to
Reap the Honor and Advantages of His Majesties Commission.

And now I speak to you Warriours & Men who bear Commis-
sions; as all that I have Said is Calculated for your Happyness,
I hope you have Listned with attention & will Remember it,
you must honour & obey those Chiefs & Captains who bear
Commissions. It is by their Wisdom Justice Reputation and
great Abilities as beloved Men and Warriors that they have
arrived at Such Preferment, the means of becoming Great like
them, is to be Good like them to immitate them in Justice &



Wisdom, in Grattitude to your Benefactor the Great King; to
follow their Example, to Listen to their Words, to Reverence
their Persons & to Merit their Recommendations without which
you can never arrive at Preferment, you are to look upon them
as the Fathers of their Country; who have only happyness in
View, and you must Submit to their decisions as greater & Wiser
than you are.

It is my Duty to be Solicitous for your Welfare and Happy-
ness, It is my Duty to Love my Brothers the Red Children of
my Sovereign, and as a Proof of my affection for you & to Con-
vince you that there is no distinction between us and the French
Inhabitants of this Province who are now become Brittish Sub-
jects and who are to be Regarded as Such by us and you, we have
made Choice of Monsr Montbereau to Manage & Superintend
your Affairs when the Kings Business may call me hence, his
affection for all Red Men, his Abihties & Talents for the Manage-
ment of their affairs, are well known to Such of you as were
formerly in the French Interest: And I recommend to you
Paya Mattaha & Warriors of the Brave Chickasaw Nation, &
also to you Great Chiefs & Warriours of the Great Party of the
Chactaw Nation, not to think the worse of him because he was
formerly your Enemy that it is now to be forgott, & in my
absence you will Experience from him the Same tenderness &
Regard as you have allways experienced from me, and as a
further proof of the Great Kings Love and Compassion for you
he has ordered me to send an Armourer into each of your Respec-
tive Nations, who shall be furnished with a forge and other
Necessary Tools to mend your Guns, when they shall become
out of order, that you may be enabled to kill Deer, & give meat
to your Famihes; and with the Skins Purchase Cloaths & other
Necessaries from the Traders. The Armourer will be immedi-
ately under the direction of the Commissary, who will Cause
such Guns to be mended as shall be recommended to him by
the Chiefs bearing Commissions and no Gun will be received
except from Such Chiefs, It being just that they should have it
in their Power to distinguish Such of their People, as are duty-
full & Obedient from the Obstinate and Perverse.

When the French Governor took leave of you he admonished



you thence forwards to look on yourselves as Children to the
Great King of England and to look on his White Subjects as
the only People that Can Supply your wants; The advice was
good & given with a View to your Happyness, keep it therefore
in your Hearts.

The Kings of France & Spain have agreed between themselves
that the Island of New Orleans & such Lands as belonged to the
French on the other Side of the Mississippi should be delivered
& henceforwd belong to the Spaniards, after that Event takes
place you are to look, upon all the frenchmen that Shall remain
on the Island of New Orleans and in the Settlements to the
Westward of the Mississippi as Spaniards, & all the Frenchmen
who are now or shall hereafter be permitted by the Governor,
to Settle on this Side the Great River Mississippi; you must
look upon as Brittish Subjects your Brothers & Children of the
Great King.

The Small Nations on the Eastern Banks of that River and
the Lakes Maurepas and Pontchoutrain are hkewise received
under his Protection, & with you become his Children & Share
his Royal & Paternal Care, he had Compassion on their desti-
tute Situation and that their wants may be relieved. He has
given order that Traders may go & Supply them & that a Com-
missary do also reside among them, to take Charge of their
affairs & See justice done them on all Occasions, But as the Com-
missary and Traders would be exposed to Insult from Parties
of the Nations to the Westward of the Mississippi, It is judged
expedient to have a Strong house Built for their Protection,
The Governor proposes to have it Built where the River Iberville
Leaves the Mississippi and divides the Land Ceded to us from
the Island of New Orleans, at it the Surrounding Small Tribes
will allways find their wants Supplied, there they will allways
get their Guns mended and whatever Grievance they may here-
after have to Complain off or Representations to make to the
Governor of this Province or me as Superintendant of their
affairs will be heard by the Commissary and properly Conveyed
to us.

By this you See being weak & poor does not Exclude these
Nations from Sharing the Great Kings Bounty, He cannot Stand



in Need of their Assistance nor has he any other Reason for
Courting their friendship than to Render them happy yet he
pardons their offences & heaps Benefits upon them.

What further Proofs can you desire to Convince You that
the Great Kings affection for you is pure and disinterested like
that of a True father, To make the proper use of the Blessings
he Bestows upon you is all he desires of you, He asks nothing
of you, but to be good & to be happy Is it not then incumbent
upon you who are Strong and arrived at Years of Maturity to
admonish your Younger or Weaker Brothers you must point
out to them the Path in which they are to Walk & if they prove
Ungratefull and Disobedient to your great Father & his White
People, you must tell them their Duty & even Chastize them if
they obstinately Persist in doing wrong. It is your Duty you
Great Chiefs not only to avoid yourselves, but Likewise to order
your Young People, not to Listen to the Talks sent you by, or
have any Communication with the Northern Tribes who have
foolishly taken up the Hatchet against your white Brethren,
Their Talks their Calumets their Belts of Wampum are all
Poisonous, if you receive them you will be in danger of being
infected with the same Madness, which hurries them to Misery
& destruction. They are now flying from the just Resentments ..
of the Great King whose offers of Friendship they madly rejected.
They are Imploring his Mercy & forgiveness in the humblest
manner. But you are Wise & will Shun the Crooked Paths in
which they Lost themselves.

When Peace was Established between the Great English and
French Nations, It was agreed that the English Should take
Possession of all Posts on this side the River Mississippi which
had been occupied by the French; It was in Consequence of
this agreement that a Regiment of the King’s Troops under the
Command of Major Loftus attempted Last year to take Posses-
sion of the Country of the Illinois,’ upon his Passage he was insul-
ted & fired upon by some people belonging to one of the Small
Nations, Inhabiting the Banks of the River, which occasioned
his return, a Possibility of misplacing his Vengeance & Punishing

^ For account of the Loftus expedition see Encyclopedia of Mississippi History,
Vol. ii, p. Ill, facts and authorities given.



the Innocent for the Guilty, Prevented his falhng upon and
destroying Such Villages as were open to his Resentment, for
he knew not from what hand he had received the Blow.

A Party of His Majesties Troops will soon reassume the
Expedition for taking Possession of the lUinois, as those Small
Nations have been forgiven on Account of their Ignorance, as
they have received Tokens of His Majesties Goodness & Pro-
tection, if they prove so ungratefull & wicked as to Obstruct or
Insult the Troops in their Second Voyage ; They are not to expect
any further favour or forgiveness. They on the Contrary may
expect to feel the Severest Effects of His Majesties Resentment,

It will therefore Shew your Wisdom & Love for your Younger
Brothers, if you will admonish them to Walk in the Straight
Path, & by every act of friendship in assisting the Troops, To
Shew that they Merit the Happyness Offered them in the Great
King’s Protection and for this purpose you will send Messengers
to them. And I expect of you Chickasaws & Chactaws, That you
will Grant whatever assistance may be required of you and in
your Power, for facihtating the Passage of the Troops.

It is the Great Kings express orders to his Governors and all
his Subjects, not to encroach on or take possession of any Lands
.. belonging to the Indians, without first asking & obtaining the
Consent of the Nation, to whom Such Land may belong, which is
not to be done by any Private Bargain or Talk, but in a Publick
manner at a General meeting with the Chiefs of Such Nations
Whereat, the Governors of the Provinces & Superintendant
must be present. It is to make you happy that the King permits
his White Children to Come & Settle Near you, but they Cannot
Come to Live in this Country except you allot them Lands to
produce Corn for their Support & Grasing for their Cattle, It
will not be in the power of your White Brethren to feed you
when you come to See them without they have Lands to plant.

We have no Intention to encroache on or take Possession of
any of your Lands without your own Consent; The Heads of
your Nation are now alltogether, I desire you will Consider this
Matter Maturely & point out Clearly the Limits of the Land you
shall judge proper to give us, and on our parts we in the most
Solemn manner Promise that we will Acquiesce in what you



Shall determine, faithfully Observe the Treaty, that in Conse-
quence thereof shall be made, and that not one foot of your
Land shall be Possessed by any of the Kings white Subjects
beyond the Boundaries you shall prescribe.

Now Paya Mattaha and Warriors of the Brave Chickasaw
Nation, and you Great Chactaw Chiefs & Warriors of the Great
Party, the Small Party and Six Villages.

I Hope you have Listned with attention to the words which
have been Spoken and that you will Consider them as Calculated
for your Happyness, I have only further to Recommend, That
from this Hour all Party Jealousies among you do Cease. That
you Live together in Harmony as Children of one Father the
Great King, That past offences be forgott & Buried in Oblivion,
that no other Emulation or Strife do Exist in your Nations, But
who shall be most Dutyfull to His Father & most Affectionate to
His White & Red Brethren.

That the Chiefs Strive who shall best Govern their Young
Men, & the young men who shall best Merit preferment by atten-
tion to the advice and Obedience to the orders of their Superiors,
& that upon all Occasions you will Shew your Grattitude Love
& attachment to the Great King George, by admonishing, advis-
ing & even Chastising any Nation of your Red Brethren that
may prove undutyfull & madly take up the Hatchett against
their white Brethren.

The Governor has Shewn you the Mischiefs brought upon
your Nation by the Great Quantities of Rum introduced among
you, by it your Bodies and Minds are ennervated, you & your
families are Striped & Miserable, And from Bold respectable
Warriours you are Rendered furious Madmen, who treat your
dearest Friends & most inveterate Enemies alike. It then
becomes your Duty Chiefs and Warriors & discourage the Impor-
tation of it. To your Towns by every means in your Power ; and
to Consider those who carry it among you as bad Men; who are
acting in Violation of every Regulation, and take the Surest
methods of rendering you wretched and Despicable, you will
then pay attention to whac the Governor has Said on that Sub-

If you remember & Regulate your Conduct by what you



have heard, You will be happy, You will enjoy uninterupted
Peace, you will See your Tribes well Cloathed and your Children
grow up, who will in your Old Age defend & honour you, to
whose wisdom they will be indebted for the most Valuable
Blessings, And I pray to the Great Creator of the Universe that
it may so happen.

Then Monsieur Montbereau the Deputy Superintendant
having desired leave to Speak to the Indians, which was Granted,
he admonished them to pay atention to what the Governor &
Superintendant had Said; he afterwards acquainted them with
the Nature of his Employment here, & the Concern he was to
take in their affairs.

His Speech being ended the Indian Chiefs desired time to
Consider of the answers they should make and the Congress
was accordingly adjourned till the 29tt but the Weather being
Cloudy & Rainy the Indians desired the meeting might be put
off till a Clear day as their Talks are to be White and Clear,
which desire being acquiesced in the Congress was referred till
Monday the first of April. —

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:14 am

Monday 1st April 1765

His Excellency the Governor, the Superintendant,

Indian Chiefs and Interpreters as usual.

The Congress being opened this day with the usual Ceremony
the Indians were acquainted that the Enghsh Chiefs were come
to hear what they had to deliver in answer, or any other New
Matter, that the day was devoted to Listen to them, & that the
manner of Proceedure was left to their own Determination accord-
ing as they had or might Settle it among themselves.

After Some little pause Tomatly Mingo of Ceneacha great
Medal Chief in the District of the Six Villages arose & Spoke as

I am the first of the Race of Imonglatcha it is true I am a
poor Red Man who came into the World Naked, and since my
rising into Manhood have Acquired no Necessary Arts to Supply
those Wants; Yet I am going to deliver my Sentiments to my
Father Boldly as a man who does not regard triffling Inconveni-



It is the Custom of the Red Men to take Preceedence accord-
ing to their Seniority, I am of the Race of Imongolatcha & in
Consequence the Second in Rank in the Chactaw Nation, The
Race of Ingholakta is before me, but on this day being Invested
by the Consent of the Chiefs with the Authority of the Pipe and
other ensigns of Peace, I now take place of Ahbamo Mingo,
Altho I acknowledge him to be my Superior.

The first white Men who arrived in the Chactaw Nation, Came
from the Rising of the Sun, they were well received & kindly
Treated, before that time the Chactaws were Ignorant & in
want of every Necessary, but they instructed them in many
things and Supphed their wants.

As I said before I am a poor Red Man I now See white Men
who have Crossed the Great Waters to Come & take possession
of the Country; that I have long heard of White Men coming by
the Power of the Clouds, and that no doubt the English are
Come both to Pansacola & this Country, for the Benefit of the
Red People as well as their own and in Consequence to bring
us the Necessary Supplies of what we cannot make & yet cannot
Subsist without.

I now Speak for all the Chiefs and Warriors of my Nation,
we thank the Great King for sending a father amongst us, you
have undoubtedly Run great Risques in coming here, & it is
to be Supposed as you come to Supply all our Wants, you have
brought Guns Cloathing and other Necessaries.

That certainly the Great King in Sending his Chiefs here
took care that they came not in want for anything. I there-
fore hope the Enghsh Powder will flourish in the Land & enable
us to Supply our Wives and Children with all Necessaries.

I was formerly a frenchman now they have abandoned me
and left me to the English, how many times is it Necessary I
should declare myself an Englishman You Favre was formerly
French, now you are become English, and if I am become their
Son, they must Act the Part of a Father in Supplying my Wants
by proper Presents and also by furnishing a plentyfull Trade.

You are now come to a New world we are your Children, &
we hope to return to our Villages with Marks of your Bounty,
and as it is acting the parts of Brothers Mutually to Supply



each others wants, we are determined amongst ourselves to
give you Lands which you may plant.

That as the whole Chactaw Nation is under the Protection
of the English, we hope there will be no distinction made between
the friends of English and those who had formerly adhered to
the french Party But that our Wives & Children will Return
home Cloathed with the Bounty of their New Father,

I now address myself to the Superintendant who is the
father of Red Men.

As you are Sent here to draw the Nations to the Brittish
Interest, We hope you will not dispise our Wives and Children,
but Supply their wants Our Warriors will ask you for Saddles,
Our Women for Trunks & other Small Necessaries, you are our
Father & we depend upon your Care.

You told us that your People our White Brethren wanted
Lands to Plant, We now give you as far as Atchatickpe, We have
long wished to See the English amongst us. Altho the Land
is Said to Belong to the whole Nation, Yet Asenuba Mingo, and
I give it to you, as being Authorized by our Birth, & we hope
you will be as generous as the french were, & send us all home
Contented to our Nation.

The Limits of the Land which we give is a Straight Line from
Atchatickpe on Tombeckbe River to the Source of the Baccatane
River which falls into the Pascagoula.

I hope the Great King will kindly Accept of this Cession and
make no use of it to our disadvantage, and tho individuals in
our Nation may Murmur that should not be thought off as the
Lands are granted by those who have a right to make Cession.
We hope that your Settlers will not pass Cent, Iboue; that you
will allways keep a garrison at Tombeckbe, but not allow it to
exceed twenty or thirty Men at most, & that it may be allways
well Supplied with Provisions & all sorts of Goods. It is necessary
you should Caution & restrain your Traders who often Treat our
Warriours with Indecent Language they often call them Eunuchs
(Ubacktubac) which is the most opprobrious Term that can be
used in our Language, Such treatment will enrage our people
and we cannot answer for the Consequences, as the Red Men in
General are very Jealous of their Wives, it will be Necessary to



Caution the Traders not to give them Offence in that Particular
by using any indecent freedom as their Conduct in this Respect
may be productive of very great disturbances.

I have now finished what I had to Say and shall give place to
others who have a Right to Speak.

After he had sat down, he got up again & Said ; that he had
forgott to mention that the Lands from Nameaba to Old Tome
were excepted in their Cession made to the white people and re-
served for the Nameaba and Mobillian Indians.

Tabuka of West Jasu Spoke Next
Chiefs Warriors and People Present, Be not Surprised at the
manner, I shall address myself to the makers of Powder & Ball,
I am of the Race of Muntgatatcha and have a Right to Speak.

Formerly we had no knowledge of things necessary for our
Existance, we were unable even of making the first Necessary
which is fire; that in case of the Rain happening amongst us
as it had on the two proceeding Days, to a degree to extinguish
all our Fires, we must have been in the greatest distress Supposing
we had not known the Art Taught us by the White Men on that
Subject which is now become so familiar and Usefull.

For my part I dont Talk much I have allways been a Man to
make Union Among the Warriors, I am the Chief it is True, &
in Consequence hold up this white Wand as a Sign of the peace
but all the other Powers I have given to Shulustamastabe who
is more Capable,

That I will hold by the Talk of Tomatly Mingo, as it was
agreed Respecting the Lands, and I Trust the rest of my Senti-
ments to Chulustamastabe who will Speak in the Morning when
Names will be given to the Governor and Superintendant.

Ahbamo Mingo

You Favre have allways heard me Speak in every Assembly,
Since you was a Boy, but now that I am Old without Teeth,
half Blind, and all the Race Convened to give their Sentiments,
perhaps it may not be proper for me to Speak. Nevertheless
I feel myself so fired with the Occasion that I cannot refrain.

I am of the Great Race of Ingulacta, I am Master of the
whole Chactaw Nation by Birth, by Long Employment & by
Long Experience it is to me to give Instruction to the rest, I



have made alliance with the other Race of Imongulacha, and
we have agreed that our Talk Should be one, I heard the Words
of the Chiefs with great Attention, and when I really found they
came here to make any Brothers happy I wished for my Eyes &
my Ears & my Teeth again.

When I was Young the White Men came amongst us bearing
abundance along with them, I took them by the hand & have
ever remained firm to my Engagements, in return all my wants
& those of my Warriors & Wives & Children have been Bounty-
fully Supphed. I now See another Race of White Men Come
amongst us bearing the Same abundance, & I expect they will
be equally Bountyfull which must be done if they wish equally
to gain the affection of my people.

I and my Men have used the Guns of France these Eighty
Winters Back, I wish I was Young to try the Enghsh Guns &
English Powder both of which I hope will flourish & rejoice the
Heart of the Hunters thro’ the Land and Cover the Nakedness
of the Women.

With respect to the Land I was not Consulted in it, if I was
to deliver my Sentiments evil disposed People might impute it
to Motives very different from those which actuate me, it is
true the Land belonged chiefly to those who have given it away;
that the Words which were Spoken have been written with a
Lasting Mark, the Superintendant marks every word after
word as one would count Bullets so that no variation can happen,
& therefore the words have been Spoken and the eternal marks
traced I will not Say anything to contradict, but, on the Contrary
Confirm the Cession which has been made. What I have how
to Say on that head is, to wish that all the Land may be Settled
in four years that I may See it myself before I die.

I Listned to all the parts of the Talks and Liked them exceed-
ing well, except that part from the Superintendant, where he
reported that those Medal Chiefs who did not behave well Should
be broke & their Medals given to others. The Conversation I
have held with Faver, in private, has rung every Night in my
Ear, as I laid my Head on the bear Skin & as I have many Ene-
mies in the Nation, I dreamed I should be the Person, which



would break my heart in my Old Age, to Loose the Authority
I have so long held.

I cannot Immagine the Great King could Send the Superin-
tendant to deceive us. In case we dehver up our French Medals &
Commissions we expect to receive as good in their place, and that
we Should bear the Same Authority & be entitled to the Same
presents. If you wish to Serve your Old Friends you may give
New Medals & Commissions & presents, but the worthy cannot
bear to be disgraced without a fault, Neither will the Generous
Inflict a Punishment without a Crime.

There was one thing I would mention tho’ it cannot concern
myself, & that is the Behaviour of the traders towards our
Women, I was told of old by the Creeks & Cherokees, wherever
the English went they caused disturbances for they hved under
no Government and paid no respect either to Wisdom or Station.
I hoped for better things, that those Old Talks had no truth in
them. One thing I must report which has happened within
my own knowledge, that often when the Traders sent for a
Basket of Bread & the Generous Indian sent his own wife to
Supply their wants instead of taking the Bread out of the Basket
they put their hand upon the Breast of their Wives which was
not to be admitted, for the first maxim in our Language is that
Death is preferable to disgrace,

I am not of opinion that in giving Land to the English, we
deprive ourselves of the use of it, on the Contrary, I think we
shall share it with them, as for Example the House I now Speak
in was built by the White people on our Land yet it is divided
between the White & the Red people. Therefore we need not
be uneasy that the English Settle upon our Lands as by that
means they can more easily Supply our wants.

Nassuba Mingo

What can I say which is worthy, after so many great Chiefs
have delivered their Sentiments or what can we Say which is
worthy the attention of those who are Listning to our Talk.

Formerly I was Young & hardy & went to War & changed
my Sentiments by the hour, since I became old I began to See
the Vanity of things, & act with Stability Void of Passion, I

have declared myself an Englishman & I am so.




The latter part of my Days has passed near a Talker to the
Great Spirit, he was a Man of Soft & Peaceable manner, instead
of embroiling, he endeavoured to Conciliate. Since I saw the
Beauty of his Conduct it affected my heart, & I have endeavoured
to follow his Example, So that the English may depend my Talk
will be for Peace.

Some people are angry that we have given So much Land,
but for my part I have long thought the nearer we are to the
whites the happier we shall be if they really Come to Supply
our wants which I cannot doubt after so Solemn declarations
which I am Conscious others will be persuaded off as well as
I when the Presents Come to be distributed. Of all the Wonders
which the white Men perform, in making of Powder & Guns &
wondrous Glasses, none Surprises me more than the Bringing
a parcell of Boards fixed together with such deep Loading,
thro’ the trackless Waves, by the Power of the Clouds. I was
glad I could Shew them to my Country Men so deeply Loaded,
for I am sure that the King of England would not have sent
Stones such a Long way to deceive us. But I am Glad the Goods
are Come for there can be no excuse as the French used to make,
that they were taken by other Canoes in the Clouds.

I am sorry to observe those very people who were most for
the English in their Absence are now the most jealous on their
Approach. But turbulent people will Still be Turbulent in
whatever Situation they Live. I must again repeat my attach-
ment to the English and as they have Said they have all things
in greater abundance than the French, so I expect my people
will receive presents in greater abundance, and if we do not,
it must proceed from want of affection in their Father, & not
from want of Ability, I do not Speak for myself but for my
Warriours, their Wives & their Children, whom I cannot Cloathe,
or keep in order without presents.

His Speech being ended the Congress was adjourned to the
Second of April.

D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:15 am

Tuesday April 2d 1765.


His Exellency Governor Johnstone
John Stuart Esqr Superintendant



Lieut Colonel Wedderburne
Monsr Montbereaut Deputy Superintendant
Indian Chiefs & Interpreters as Usual

The Congress being opened Chulustamastabe arose desired
to be heard & Spoke as follows,

It is determined amongst us to give the Governor, Superin-
tendant, Colonel Wedderburne, the Chief of the Warriors here,
& Monsr Montbereau; Indian Names by which they may be
known & distinguished throughout Our Nation, this is the day
we have appointed for that Ceremony, which is usually Performed
by us with great Solemnity.* We hope you will receive them as
a Mark of our Attachment, & that our Ceremony may be attended
with the Report of some great Guns from the Fort. Then
Tabuka of West Yasu approached the Table, Singing & waving
an Eagles Tail with which he fanned the Governor, and pro-
nounced the Name of Ungulasha Mattaha, by which he called
him, and which was three times repeated aloud by all the In-
dians Present.

Chulustamastabe in the same manner with the Same Cere-
mony & Solemnity Named the Superintendant Chactamataha

Nassuba Mingo Named Colonel Wedderburne Fannimingo

And Appopaye Named Monsr Montbereaut Ulaghta Mattaha.

Which Ceremony being ended Chulustamastabe & Appopaye
presented the Superintendant & Monsr Montbereaut the Calu-
mets & Eagles Tails.

Chulustamastabe then proceeded as follows,

I now arise to Speak for myself & People, it is the Custom
of the Enghsh & other Nations amongst whom I have been, to
appoint one or two Persons in great Assemblies to deliver the
Sentiments of the whole, in this I Chuse to follow their Example
rather than that of my own Countrymen. Then turning to
his people he Said; I have been in many Nations where the
Sentiments of the people were allways delivered by one Chosen
for that purpose, the Chactaws only have the Rage of Speaking,

* This ceremony was the Indian manner of conferring honor upon their friends.



& all want to be Orators, I am not as yet dignified by any Medal,
Gorgett, or Commission, yet I will Speak for you & myself a
few words.

I will now address myself to you the Superintendant, who
I look upon to be the father of all Red Men, I have great Confi-
dence in you & what I am to Say is in Behalf of my whole Nation.

To whom can I recommend my people but to the Governor
& you, whom the Great King has sent to make us happy?
Should Death soon overtake me, I shall have the Satisfaction
of thinking that I leave my Nation my Women & Children in
your Care. The old Fire which formerly warmed & cherished
the People of this Nation, is now extinct; You have Lighted a
New one, which does now & I hope will allways continue to
burn Clear, that my Nation may never become Cold.

My Nation as well as other Red Men are ignorant & can make
Nothing, why then should they not Listen to the Talks, which
you bring, to whom they are indebted for every Necessary.

You come here to give us Peace, to remove our Jealousies,
to Quiet our fears, & Supply our wants, I look round this Vast
Country & can See none but friends. It must be our own faults
if from this day we do not Live in perpetual peace, the Words are
free from any Enemy but Snakes or wild Beasts.

Be not Surprised that I who am a poor Indian, Begg for
myself & my Nation, We are very numerous & very Poor, I
hope you will not Send us home Empty.

I hope now that the Governor and you are here you will
put us upon the same footing with the Creek Nation & order your
Traders to furnish us with the same Goods, at the rate they are
Supply ed.

I have heard what has been said concerning the Lands &
I agree to the Cession that was made, I think my white Brethren
cannot be too near me.

There were formerly great Discord & Enemity Subsisting
between the Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations, which I hope
are now all removed & that friendship & peace will be established
in their Room.

Before I Conclude I must recommend to your Protection
twelve of my Warriours who were allways faithfull to the



English & never deserted their Cause & I expect that they will
have no reason to repent their having Listned to my Council.
Presents the Warriours to the Governor & Superintendant.

Mingo Huma of Immongoulasha.

Last Year When the french Governor took his Leave of us he
advised me to give my hand to the English Commandant,
which I did. I have waited with Impatience for the Sight of
my New father, I now have the pleasure of Seeing the Governor
and Superintendant who came over the great Waters they have
Surprisingly arrived Safe in peices of Wood joined together.
At which we rejoice.

The Medal which I wear was given me by the French Gov-
ernor, as a Token of Power & Authority to Govern my People,
but he who gave me my Medal has gone away & left me desti-
tute; I am Sensible it is impossible for a Child to have two
fathers; I now acknowledge you to be my father, in token of
which I deliver you my Commission & Medal, I hope you will
replace them with others as good and honorable. When the
French Governor went away he left me without a Gun, I hope
that the Great King who has Sent you here has enabled you to
Supply our wants, & that English Powder & Guns, will be
plenty in our Nation as those of the french were. That our
Women & Children may be Cloathed by them.

I once imagined that the English were at Such a Distance,
that it was impossible they could transport their Goods here,
but I am now Convinced of my Error, for I See plenty.

Mingo Houma having deUvered his Medal & Commission,
at the time he was Speaking, his Example was followed by all
the other Warriors.

After Several other of the Chactaw Warriors had Spoke, to
the Same purpose Paya Mattaha Great Leader of the Chickasaw
Nation arose & Spoke as follows —

My Heart & the Superintendants are as one, it is well Known
I never deserted the Brittish Interest and I never will. Tho’
I am a Red Man my Fleart is white from my Connections with
& the Benefits I have received from the white People, I allmost
look upon myself as one of them.

I cannot have much to Say to my white Brethren; My



Inclination & Sentiments are well known to them, I never
Shut my Ears to their Talks, I have allways followed their

My Mind has allways been unchanged I can therefore have
Little to Say to you the Governor and Superintendant, But I
will Speak to my Younger Brethren the Chactaws & you will
hear me.

The Talks which you delivered me from the Great King are
Good & such as I expected, I am now going to Speak, you will
Consider that I am a warrior & not accustomed to make Long
Speeches, You will therefore not expect a fine Speech from me.

Addressing himself to the Chactaws —

My Younger Brothers

I now Speak to you & desire you will Listen with Attention
to the Talks of the Governor and Superintendant. I have all-
ways done So, & the English have allways Supported me in
my Distress & never deserted or Deceived me.

The Talks we have heard at this meeting have determined
me to Speak to you in a friendly manner I shall not therefore
call to mind old affairs. Let what is past be buried in Oblivion,
& Let us only now think of what is to Come, Some of you were
allways my Friends & Supported the Interest of the English
in your Nation, The Red Captain & Chulustamastabe were of
the Same Sentiments with me, they went to Visit the Enghsh
& the Treatment they received confirmed their Attachment to
me, for it was by my advice that they undertook the Journey
at the Risque of their Lives yet they did not repent of having
performed it.

While the French were in this Land Division and Discord
reigned in your Country, you fought and killed each other;
but now look round & See Peace and Plenty: You are all
Children of one Family & have but one Father, who admonishes
& orders you to Live in Unity & Love each other. Let us now
return to our Village hand in hand rejoicing & carrying with
us the Presents of our Elder Brothers.

The Talk which I hold in my hand is from the Great King
of England, it was delivered me at Augusta by the Superintend-



ant. The orders of the Great King I have allways Considered
as the Rule of my Actions, & I will Continue so to do. The
Papers which I hold in my hand Contain his Orders, transmitted
me by the Superintendant which I Punctually obeyed, I again
admonish you to pay the Greatest attention to what the Governor
& Superintendant have recommended to you, I have Seen their
Talks sent into the Creeks & other Nations which have allways
tended to promote the Good of the Red People. I have no more
to Say, but as I have delivered my Sentiments without Disguise,
I desire a Note may be made of what I have Said.

Red Captain

I have Nothing to add to what has been already Said to my
White Brethren, I shall therefore only talk to you my Country-
men the Chactaws.

The day which I have longed wished for is now come. The
French are removed & the English are in the Land, what reason
can now exist for Jealousy & Parties? are we not now joined
together by our Father The Great King who has removed the
Cause of Contention? Yet I am sorry to observe that in your
Camps, you employ the hours in which you should repose your-
selves, in muttering & Talking about things, which you are
entirely ignorant off.

I long wished for, & foresaw this day it is now come & I
rejoice in it. I allways Supported the English Cause in Con-
junction with Paya Mattaha & Chulustamastabe, In which we
Stood by ourselves when allmost the whole Nation had deserted

The Colours which I have were sent me by the English, In
the times of Strife & Discord I was not afraid to carry them,
I shall never throw them away. I hope all of you will be so
wise as to keep in your Hearts the Words which have been Spoke
by the Governor & Superintendant which will be the Sure means
of rendering your Nation happy.

Then the Congress was adjourned to the next day.



D J Thornton
Posts: 313
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:15 am

Wednesday April 3^ 1765.


His Excellency the Governor
John Stuart Esqr Superintendant
Colonel Wederburne

Monsieur Montbereau Deputy Superintendant
Indian Chiefs & Interpreters as Usual
The Congress being opened Pouchama, arose desired to be
heard & Spoke as follows —

Red Men & Warriors I desire you will Listen to what I am
going to Say, As I have not Said anything since my arrival,
I will now tell my Sentiments to the Governor & Superintendant.

When Children are poor they ought to tell their wants to
their Father particularly when they know their Father will
Supply them. My Heart is glad to hear the Talks of this day,
and I will abide by them, the french fire is now put out, and
the English one I hope will forever burn Clear, I am not afraid
that I or my people will ever want When I have two such Gen-
erous Chiefs to Support me.

As to the Land which has been Ceded I put my hand to my
Heart as a Token of my approbation, and am happy to share
it with you, but I hope in return you will Consider the distressed
Situation of our Wives & Children, that it may not be Said I
saw the Enghsh Chiefs & get nothing from them. You must
not be Surprised at my asking Rum, in return, for the Lands,
Rum is a Liquor We are fond of, and that you have So I will
beg for Rum & must have Some, it is English Drink. Upon
hearing you wanted to See me I came at the Risque of my Life
I will now return to my Village in Safety, because you have
taken away all Danger, and Established Peace & plenty in Lieu
of them. I advise you red Men, never to Let what you have
the Governor and Superintendant Say be Blown away by the
Wind. It is for your Own Good, and as Long as you adhere
to their advice you cannot fail of being a Respectable Numerous
and happy Nation. I will Say no more, but what I have Said
is from my heart and I never will recede from it.

Addressing himself to the Governor and Superintendant, he
Spoke as follows —



I have heard a great deal Said about God Allmighty, Heaven
& Hell, & it has all entered my Heart, and I believed it to be
very true, & I must again repeat to you that we have given you
a great deal of fine Land & we expect to be paid for it, I do not
repent of what is given, because we expect to reap the benefit
of your being so near us —

Several other Chiefs spoke much to the same Purpose for
which Reason their particular Speeches are not inserted.

Then the Congress was adjourned to the next day.

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