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English Dominion Additional info II

Moderators: dpyates, jakayj, suelevin1, dnacommunities, teresapy, D J Thornton

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:16 am

Thursday April 4th 1765.


His Excellency the Governor, John Stuart Esquire Superin-

Colonel Wedderburn, Monsieur Montbereaut Deputy Superin-

Indian Chiefs and Interpreters as usual.

The Congress being opened as usual the Superintendant
acquainted the Indians that the Governor and he had prepared
a Treaty to be signed by both parties, & that he would now
proceed to Read, & have the same explained to them; which
was accordingly done as follows Viz*

At a Congress held at Mobille in the Province of West Florida,
on the Twenty Sixth day of March, In the Year of Our Lord
One thousand Seven hundred & Sixty five, by His Excellency
George Johnstone Esqr Governor of West Florida, and the
Honourable John Stuart Esquire Sole Agent & Superintendant
of Indian Affairs in the Southern Department of North America.

A Treaty for the preservation and Continuance of a perfect
peace and friendship between His most Sacred Majesty George
the Third by the Grace of God of Great Brittain France & Ireland
King, defender of the Faith, and so forth. And the Several
Indian Chiefs Herein Named who are Authorised by the Chick-
asaw ahd Chactaw Nations in their own & their Behalf s.

Article 1st That a perfect & perpetual Peace & Sincere
friendship Shall be Continued between His Majesty King George,
the Third, and all his Subjects, and the Said Nations the Chick-



asaws & Chactaws, and the Said Nations of Indians hereby
respectively engage to give the Utmost attention to preserve
& maintain Peace & friendship between their people & the King
of Great Brittain and his Subjects and Shall not Commit or
Permit any kind of Hostility, injuries or damage whatsoever
Against them from henceforward for any Cause or under any
pretence Whatsoever & for Laying the Strongest and purest
Foundations of a Perfect & perpetual peace & friendship His
most Sacred Majesty has been Graciously pleased to Pardon &
forgive all past Offences & injuries & Hereby declares there
shall be a general Oblivion of all Crimes, Offences and injuries
that may have been heretofore Committed or done by any
of the Said Indians.

Article 2d The Subjects of the Great King George and the
aforesaid Nations of Indians shall forever hereafter be looked
upon as one People, and the Governor & Superintendant engage
that they will encourage Persons to furnish & Supply the Said
Nations of Indians aforesaid with all sorts of Goods usually
carried amongst them, in the manner which they now are, and
which will be Sufficient to answer all their wants.

3d The English Governor & Superintendant engage for them-
selves and Successors, as far as they can that they will
allways give due attention to the Interest of the Indians and
will be ready on all occasions, to do them full & ample Justice,
and the said Indian Parties do expressly Promise & engage,
for themselves Severally & for their Said Nations, Pursuant
to the full right & Power which they have so to do, that they
will in all Cases & upon all occasions do full & ample Justice
to the English, and will use their Utmost endeavours, to prevent
any of their People from giving any disturbance, or doing any
damage to them in the Settlements or elsewhere as aforesaid
either by Stealing their Horses, killing their Cattle, or other-
wise, or by doing them any personal hurt or Injury, and that
if any damage be done as aforesaid. Satisfaction Shall be made
for the same to the Party injured ; & that if any Indian or Indians,
whatever, shall hereafter Murder or kill a white Man, the Offender
or Offenders shall without any delay. Excuse or pretence whatever,
be immediately Put to Death, in a Publick manner in the pres-



ence of at Least two of the English who may be in the Neigh-
bourhood where the offence is Committed.

Article 4th And if any white Man Shall kill or Murder an
Indian, Such white man shall be tried for the offence, in the
Same manner, as if he had Murdered a white Man & if found
Guilty shall be executed accordingly in the Presence of some of
the Relations, of the Indian who may be Murdered, if they choose
to be present.

5th And to Prevent all disputes on account of Encroach-
ments or Supposed Encroachments Committed by the Enghsh
Inhabitants, of this or any other of His Majesties Provinces,
on the Lands or hunting Grounds reserved & Claimed by the
Chickasaw & Chactaw Indians, and that no mistakes doubts
or disputes may for the future Arise thereupon, in Consideration
of the great marks of friendship, benevolence & Clemency exten-
ded to us the Said Chickasaw and Chactaw Indians, By His
Majesty King George the third. We the Chiefs & Head Warriors
distinguished by Great & Small Medals and Gorgetts & bearing
His Majesties Commissions as Chiefs & Leaders of our respective
Nations, by Virtue and in Pursuance of the full Right & Power
which we now have, and are Possessed of. Have agreed and
we do hereby Agree that for the future the Boundary be Settled
by a Line Extended from Gross Point in the Island of Mount
Lauis by the Course of the Western Coast of Mobille Bay to
the Mouth of the Eastern Branch of Tombeckbe River, and
North by the Course of Said River to the Confluence of Aliba-
mont & Tombeckby Rivers, and afterwards along the Western
Bank of Alibamont River to the Mouth of Chickianoce River
and from the Confluence of Chickianoce and Alibamont Rivers,
a Straight Line to the Confluence of Biance and Tombeckby
Rivers, from thence by a Line along the Western Banks of Bance
River ’till its Confluence with the Tallatekpe River, from thence
by a Straight Line to Tombeckby River opposite to Atchalickpe,
and from the Atchalickpe by a Straight Line to the most Norther-
ly part of Buckatanne River, and down the Cource of Bucka-
tanne River to its Confluence with the River Pascagoula and
down by the Course of the River Pascagoula within twelve



Leagues of the Sea Coast, and thence by a due West Line as
far as the Chactaw Nation have a right to Grant.

And the said Chiefs for themselves and their Nations give
and Confirm the property of all the lands contained between
the above described Lines and the Sea to His Majesty the King
of Great Brittain and his Successors, reserving to themselves
full right & property in all the Lands to the Northward of Said
Lines now possessed by them, and none of His Majesties White
Subjects shall be Permitted to Settle on Tombeckby River to
the Northward of the Rivulet called Centibouck.

6 Whereas His Majesty has been Graciously pleased to
order that Commissaries be sent to the different Nations of
Indians for the administration of Justice between the Traders
& Indians, The Chiefs of the Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations,
Hereby engage for themselves & their respective to Support the
Authority & Protect the Persons of the Said Commissaries, from
any insult or disrespect. That they will be aiding & assisting to
them in the execution of their Offices in apprehending any
White Person of what Nation soever against whom the Com-
missary shall issue his warrant and for Conducting him or them
to Such of the Neighboring Provinces as the Commissaries Shall
direct, and they further engage for themselves and their respect-
ive Nations to abide by the decision of the Said Commissary
in all disputes relating to property between the Indians & the
Traders provided Nevertheless that one or more Medal Chiefs
be present and approve of Such decision,

7th And as much as possible to prevent all disputes and
Jealousies between the Traders and the Indians in the Said
Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations, as well as to fix and Ascertain
the Prices & Rates at which Goods are henceforward to be Sold
in the Said Nations that the Indians may not be imposed upon.
The Governor & Superintendant engage for themselves & Suc-
cessors as far as they can, that the several Sorts of Goods men-
tioned in the annexed Schedule shall be furnished to the said
Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations at the rates therein Specified,
and the Chickasaw & Chactaw Chiefs agree & engage for them-
selves and their respective Nations that the rates at which the
Several Sorts of Goods are hereafter to be bartered for half


dressed Deer Skins in their Country Shall be as Specified & set
for in the annexed Schedule.

In Testimony Whereof we the Underwritten have Signed
this present Treaty & put to it the Seals of om- Arms, The day
& Year above written & the Several Kings and Chiefs of the
Said Nations of Indians have also set their hands & Seals to
the Same at the time and place aforesaid —

Nashuba Mingo
Mingo Houma
Toupa Houma
Apou Paye

LS PayaMattaha LS Geo; Johnstone
LS The Red Captain LS Governor of Wt
LS Alibamon Mingo LS Florida LS
LS Chulustamastabe LS John Stuart

Tobouca of Yassoue Tomatly Mingo

Poushetha Houma LS Olacto Opaye LS
Oulacta Houma LS Poushu Houma LS
lUipatapo LS Taskahumastabe LS

Chucka Taha LS Mattaha Pouscoush


LS Mingo Pouscouch LS
LS Matah PouscouchLS
LS Olacta Houma LS Arthur Gordon
LS Checko Oulacta LS Secty
LS Fannimingo Bouk-
LS toukkoulou LS

Mingo Emita
Mingo Ouma
Oulessa Mingo
Yassou Mattaha
Mingo Houma

LS Superintendant S^
District LS

By order of the
Governor & Sup-

Rates of Goods in the Chactaw & Chickasaw Nations —

2 yds Strouds

81b. Leather Trading Scissars 1 lb. Leather

1 Blanket

8 ditto

one pair
Knives (one)

1 do

1 ditto Shag end

6 ditto

Cutteau (one)

3 “

1 White Shirt

3 ditto

Trading Razors

2 “

1 Check do

4 do


Vermillion one

1 “

Fringed Housings

10 “


Brass Wire 3 Spans

1 “

Laced ditto

6 “

Brass Kettles

no fixed

Gartering one piece

4 “

Tin ditto





Silk Bengals Large
ditto Small

12 Pea Buttons






Dutch Pretties one ps 2 “ Trading Guns 16 Leather

Quality Binding 3yds 1 “ Gun flints 1 ditto

Silk ferret 2 ditto 1 “ Hawks Bells 1 “

Indian Callico 1 ditto 4 “ Gun Powder

Romall handkfs 1 do 2 “ Bullets

Saddles according to “ Ear Bobs

Snaffle Bridles one 4 ‘ ‘

5 Strands Barley 1
Corn Beads

2fl Strands Common 1 “


The Treaty having been Read & explained was Signed by
the Contracting Parties; after which the Superintendant ac-
quainted them that he had prepared Medals and Commissions
for Such as were pitched upon to govern their Nation, and that
he would immediately proceed to vest them with these Ensigns
of Power and Authority.

He then called out and arranged the Chiefs for whom the
Great Medals were prepared in the following Order —

Paya Mattaha Chickasaw Chief Shulustamastabe

Alibamo Mingo Tomatly Mingo

Captain Houma Nashuba Mingo

The Superintendant then delivered Six Great Medals into
the hands of the Governor who hung them about the Necks of
the Chiefs & at the same time, they received their Commissions
from the Superintendant which Ceremony was accompanyed
by a discharge of Seven Cannons from the Fort & the Fifes &
Drums of the 22d & 34th Regiments playing in the room.

The Superintendant then gave a Charge to the Chiefs,
explaining the Nature & Duties of their Office, & afterwards
presented them to the Indians standing round, as their Chiefs
requiring Strict Obedience & Respect to them as their Superiors.

The same Ceremony was observed in Installing the following
Small Medal Chiefs under a Discharge of five Guns from the fort.
Vizt Appopaye Oulactopaye

Mingo Ouma Poucha Houma

Toupa Houma



This Ceremony being ended His Excellency the Governor,
acquainted the Indians that the affairs of Government called
him immediately to Pensacola & therefore took that Publick
opportunity of taking his leave of them, and that the Superin-
tendant would remain to conduct what Still remained to be done.
And then the Congress Closed.

A True Copy of the Proceedings at the Congress at Mobile
with the Chickasaws and Chactaws.

Arthur Gordon


Endorsed Chactaw Congress. — In Gov^ Johnstone & — Mr
Stuart’s joint Lettr — of the 12tt June 1765.

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:20 am

John Stuart.

Endorsed Pensacola 12th June 1765. — Govr Johnstone, — & Mr
Stuart. — 5th SepU by Mr. McPherson.

Congress at Pensacola.

At a Congress held at the Town of Penzacola in the Province
of West Florida, By His Excellency George Johnstone Esquire



Governor of the Said Province, and John Stuart Esqr His
Majesties Sole Agent & Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the
Southern District of North America, and the Several Chiefs &
Warriors of the Creek Indians

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:21 am

Sunday May 26 ^^ 1765.

This day a Messenger arrived from the Mortar* & the Warriors
of the Upper Creek Nation acquainting his Excellency the Gov-
ernor & his Majesties Superintendant of Indian affairs that the
said Warriors were within half a mile of the Town and desired
to know if it would be agreable, that they should wait on them,
Lieut Colonel Wedderburne having offered to accompany Mons^
Montbereau, the Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs, to the Spot
where the Indians were & Conduct them into Town his offer
was accepted off. The above Gentlemen with the Indians having
approached within an hundred Yards of the Gate halted & the
Governor and Superintendent received a Message from the Mor-
tar by one of the Interpreters desiring they would meet him at
the Gate, in answer to which they Sent to acquaint him that it
was their Constant Custom to receive Indians in the Council
Chamber under the Great Kings picture. Upon which the
Indians came into Town & were Saluted by a discharge of Great
Guns. The Mortar being first Introduced to the Governor &
Superintendant by Lieu* Colonel Wedderburne & Monsieur Mont-
bereau, was followed by the other Chiefs, Colonel Wedderburne
delivered to the Governor and Monsieur Montbereau to the
Superintendant each a White Wing, as an Emblem of Peace
and friendship from the whole Nation, afterwards Sir William
Barnaby the Governor & Superintendant were Saluted with and
fanned by the Eagles Tails.

The Indian Warriors being all Seated in Order, & after
Smoaking as Customary on such Occasions, The Superintendant
thanked them for the attention they had paid to his Invitation,
Said he rejoiced at having an opportunity of taking the Mortar
by the hand and Introducing him & his Warriors to the Governor
of the Province: that the white Wings they had Sent were
received Chearfully being looked upon as Emblems of Peace &
the Purity of their Intentions.

^ The most influential chief of the Creeks. The firm friend of the French.
Called by the French Le Loupe, by the natives Yahatatastonake.



The Governor next told them that he received them with
great Cordiahty & friendship that he was rejoiced at having an
opportunity of talking to them, as from the opinion he had of
their Wisdom and Justice, he did not doubt but all Jealousies
& misunderstandings would be removed and Succeeded by mu-
tual Confidence and Good Will.

The Mortar Said this was the day appointed by the Great
Being for their Seeing one another that he at that time proposed
no more than Shaking the Governor & Superintendent by the
hands, that they would defer talking about Business till another
day, which he hoped would be Clear and bright as that was, and
that he expected to hear or give nothing but good Talks.

The next day was then appointed to proceed on Business.
Monday May 27tt 1765.

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:22 am

Monday May 27tt 1765.


Admiral Sir Wm Barnaby

His Excellency Governor Johnstone

John Stuart Esq*" Superintendant*

Monsieur Montbereau Deputy Superintendant^
Colonel Wedderburne

And the following members of His Majesty’s Council for the
Province of West Florida-

Hon. James Macpherson '

Hon. James Bruce

Hon. Elhas Durnford Esqfs

Hon. Jacob Blackwell |

Hon. WilUam Chfton J

Indian Chiefs Present
The Mortar

* For facts concerning Stuart see the i9th Annual Report of the Bureau of
Ethnology, p. 203.

^ The Chevalier Montaut De Monberaut. He had great influence with the
Indians, and was employed by the English as deputy superintendent of Indian
affairs. It was through his influence that the Southern Indians were induced to
make treaties with the English.

Tapulga & Several others

Capt AUeck J

The Young Lieutenant r Lower Creeks.


& Several others



Divine Service having been performed by the Revd Docter
Wilkinson the Congress was opened with Great Ceremony. And
Sir Wm Bernaby was pleased to deliver the following Speech-

Friends Brothers Chief Warriors & Beloved of the
Creek Nation

It Gives me infinite pleasure thai the Great King my Royal
Master has been pleased to order me to this place as it has given
me an opportunity of Shaking Hands with the Mortar and the
rest of the great Warriors & Chiefs, Whose Noble feats in War,
have been so much talked of from afar.

As they have been famed in War for their Brave actions,
they have now an opportunity of Shining in the State, by Caus-
ing the Paths to be made White, & all red Spots to be wiped
away, that we are united in the Same Interest under one Great
King the father of us all.

And as the Great King has been pleased to honour his Excel-
lency the Governor with a Commission, to settle this Infant
Colony, and to make all the Nations round him our friends.
Whose experience as a Warrior, and whose Judgement & Abihties
will in time convince them how happy they may be (& I hope
will find themselves) under his administration.

I flatter myself the Mortar & all the Great Warriors and
Chiefs who are present will Contribute every measure in their
Power, towards making a Long & Lasting Peace, by Living in
Constant friendship with us. That their Children Great Grand
Children & ours may Live & enjoy the Blessings of it. And future
ages rejoice in Celebrating the Happyness of that day which
gave universal Joy to all their people.

The Great King has been pleased likewise to appoint Mr
Stuart Superintendant, Whose Skill in War & knowledge of
Mankind must render him very acceptable among them. As I
am fully persuaded he will extend his Power to the utmost in
order to make them a Happy & Contented people by an equal
Distribution of the Great Kings favours to his Children, & by
giving them all the Indulgencies they can request & he can pos-
sibly obtain for them.

As I shall soon Cross the Great Waters to execute the Great



Kings Commands in other parts I hope when I return to find
the Talks of this day, to have made so strong & lively an impres-
sion on their Hearts & Minds as to have Convinced them that
the only Point we had in View was that of making them a Rich
& happy people, To hve well with them, and that there might
not for the future be any bad Talks or cause of Complaint on
our paths.

I have nothing further to recommend but peace & Harmony
amongst themselves, the only means of making them a happy &
Flourishing people.

The Admiral having finished his Speech His Excellency Gov-
ernor Johnstone spoke as follows. Viz*

Chiefs & Warriors of the Creek Nation Friends & Brothers

The Great King George in sending me Hither directed that
I should endeavour, to Estabhsh and maintain a perfect peace
between his white & Red Children. In order to conclude so
desirable an end. He also directed that Captain Stuart your
Common father should meet me here. We have further made
Choice of Mr Montbereau to manage the affairs of the Indians
under us to remove aU Jealousies, from those who formerly
espoused another Interest. It is not our design by this to give
any diffidence to our old friends, but only Confidence to our new,
& to shew we are all one people. We will never forgett those
who have adhered to our Interest. But we are hkewise ready
to receive those who did not with the joy of a Father who had
lost his Son & found him again, and that all past Offences should
be buried in Oblivion.

When Peace & friendship is to be established the kindness
that should Reign in the Heart will not bear the Repetition of
the evil Deeds which have past on either Side.

The Great God of the World has engraved the mark, of Jus-
tice too strong on the minds of Man to need a Repetition of his
Faults to make him sensible of them. This is the first Law
which he has given, never do that to another which we would
not wish He should do unto us.

The Great Points which I would recommend to you are.
Peace & Harmony amongst yourselves. Justice & Fidehty in
your dealings with the Traders, disregard to the Talks of Idle



men which distract the mind, respect and Obedience to the
Chiefs and great Warriors in your Nation without which there
can be no dependence on any of your engagements, For if the
Young are to Govern the old, and the fool to advise with the
Wise man all things must run into Confusion.

Your Nation has certainly as many Wise & Great Men in it,
as any other Nation of Indians. It is their Duty then to lead
the others in the Paths of Justice and stand responsible for their

We really have no object in View but what is entirely for the
Good of yourselves, now that all other white Nations are gone.

The King wishes to establish Regulations amongst you, to
prevent all future misunderstanding. He wishes to Establish
Commissaries in your Nation to hear your Complaints & do
i mm ediate Justice on the Traders, or others who may Commit
Crimes against you. He wishes Likewise to establish, an
Armourer amongst you to mend your Guns, & also to give you
a plentyfull Trade from all parts of the world. He expects in
return that you will not Shelter Wicked & runawaymen, who
having Committed Crimes in their own Country come to dis-
tract your Nation, but on the Contrary that you will deliver up
all deserters, whither Blacks or whites for which a very reason-
able reward will be settled in the Treaty. That you will refrain
from killing the Cattle or Stealing the Horses of the white Men.
That every Murderer on either Side shall be put to Death, can
any thing then be more reasonable & Just than these Regula-
tions, & is there a Mortal who looks up to the Great Spirit who
governs the world with Justice, & with truth who does not wish
they should be carryed into execution. For those who commit
Crimes, However they may escape for the present here, will be
punished hereafter; As Sure as the Murderer is seen to Start in
his Dreams, the Sun to rise & enlighten the World, or the thunder
to roll over the Heads of the Guilty; so sure will the Wicked
meet with his reward. And tho after evil Deeds we may escape
the Death of our Enemies, Yet it often happens that the Blasted
Tree Shall tumble over our Heads, & the Snake Bite us in the
Secret Path.

I have not heard of any Particular Complaints against our




Nation except a Jealousy which is Spread abroad, that we wish
to possess all the Lands of the Indians.' Nothing is so untrue,
it is strictly the command of the Great King, that we shall not
presume to possess any Lands belonging to Indians except such
as shall be ceded with their own Consent, So that you are the
entire Masters on that Subject. We really expect that you will
Yield us some part to Subsist on, both to supply our wants &
yours when you come among us; for you are Sensible, nothing
can be produced in this Sand; but we are far from asking any
large Tract of Country; what we wish most is to avoid Disputing;
to fix a certain Limit rather than Large Possessions. I hope it
will never be Said that this place where we have all met, this
day with so much joy, has been deserted for want of food. At
present we Subsist only by Supplys from over the Great Waters
or Cattle from Mobille. I am Sure the Generosity of the Creeks
will not allow it to be Said, that we shall feed their hungry
hunters by the Produce of another Land, but I am far from
prescribing what their Limits should be, your Wisdom will direct
the Line, whatever you fix, I shall take care our people shall
adhere to, when you find that I vary from my Word or bear a
double Tongue, I desire you will Immediately mistrust & desert
me. So long as I behave with Justice and Truth, I expect your
friendship will Augment from day to day & Year to Year, till
our Union shall become Strong as the Chain which holds the
Ship, & Bright as the Sun in his Glory.

His Excellency having ended his Discourse The superin-
tendant delivered himself as follows —

Great Chiefs & Warriors of the Creek Nation Abekas, Tallipusses,
Cowetas & Ahbamons


I meet you here this day by order of the Great King George
Sovereign & Father of the British Nation; The Great Giver of
Life who is the Author of all Goodness, has permitted the General
meeting between so many Great Chiefs of the Brittish, as well
as of your Nation, & I pray to him that Tranquihty mutual
friendship, & lasting happyness may result from it.

^ Pontiac had used this charge to arouse the Indians against the English. As
the English method of colonization was the cultivation of the soil, the fear of the
Indians was entirely natural.



The Great Chiefs who Commands upon the Waters and the
Governor of this Province have already spoken to you, you have
heard their Words, they are the words of Peace if your hearts
are disposed like theirs what you have heard must have made
an impression upon them.

I am well known to the Warriors of your Nation, you have
before heard me Speak, I cannot say that my Words were
entirely blown away by the Wind. The Kings Talk delivered
by me at Augusta, I hope you still retain in your memory, I
have not forgott the answers which you gave, and the Obliga-
tions which you, the four Governors & I, mutually entered into ;
they were calculated for the Good of the red Men as well as the

The King, who is the Tender and Benevolent Father, of Red,
as well as white Men, has been graciously pleased to appoint me
Superintendant of Indian affairs, it is my Duty to be attentive
to your happyness, to shew you the Streight Path & remove the
Thorns which may hurt your feet. I will allways be ready (as
far as I am Capable) to advise you, I will upon all occasions
attentively Listen to your Complaints, and apply to His Majesty
or his Governors, on your Behalf for Redress of your Grievances;
in return I expect that you will upon all occasions receive my
Messages, listen to my advice & act in Conformity, you will
always find them Calculated for your Welfare and prosperity.

This meeting is by the Special order of the Great King, that
our former engagements may be renewed and Strengthened,
and such new ones entered into as may be judged most Conduc-
ive, to keep the Chain of friendship bright & entire.

You this day see & take by the hand a New friend the Gov-
ernor of this Province ; he Landed in this Country fully possessed
of his Sovereign’s Intentions of giving you happyness, & receiv-
ing you into the Royal Protection; You will allways experience
from him. Justice, Moderation, & friendship; he will Convince
you of his truth and good faith, by the most exact observation
on his part of the Engagements we shall now enter into. I hope
you bring with you intentions equally Amicable & just, and that
Like Wise men & true Lovers of your Country, you will pursue

' Congress held November 5, 1763, between the English and the Chickasaws’
Creeks, Cherokees and Choctaws, Treaty of limits and trading privileges.



every measure by which Lasting Peace may be Secured & the
Possibihty of future disputes & contention removed. The fixing
and clearly ascertaining a Boundary Line between the Brittish
Province & you, is a Step which I recommend as essentially
necessary for attaining these desirable objects; this I hope you
will Consider of, & that your determination will be Such as will
evince your Wisdom, Gratitude and good intentions, to your
white Brethren, from whom you receive such Benefits, without
whose assistance you cannot Support Life, who are wilhng &
able to assist you & Supply your wants upon equitable and mod-
erate terms.

I shall not mention what has passed since the Late Congress,
on the Contrary, I will join the Governor. In humbly Begging
the Great King to forgive all past Offences, provided you will
Convince us of your determined resolution to do justice for the
future, by giving Life for Life, nor will it be any attenuation
that any person Murdered is only a poor back Settler, the Kings
Paternal care Extends as well to the poorest of his Subjects, as
to the Richest; and justice wid be as Strenuously insisted upon
for the one as the other. On our parts we will correspond in
rendering you exact justice as Stipulated in the former treaty.

I am to inform you that a proper person is to be sent into
your Nation, who will be authorised to decide disputes between
your people & the Traders, he will take care that justice be done
in weights and measures, all Talks from the Governors & from
me will be delivered by him, and he will Convey to us whatever
Messages you may have to Send, as he will be sent with a View
to your happyness, we expect that you will respect him, that
you will protect him from any Insult, assist him in the execution
of his office, or any orders he may receive from us, and Aid him
in Apprehending the Person of any white Man who has or may
merit Punishment.

I recommend to you, to restrain your Young Men from acts
of injustice and Violence, and Admonish them, not to Steal
Horses, or kill the Cattle of the Inhabitants of this, or any other
Province, as Necessary for the Preservation of Peace & good
Neighborhood. You will also order restitution for any Horses
so taken from the Traders or Settlers.



I have now only to acquaint you that as the Kings Business
Calls me away from this Province, Monsieur de Montbereau will
take Charge of your affairs in my absence, imder the direction
of the Governor. You are so well acquainted with him, that
my saying any thing further will be Needless. Being now in
the King of Great Brittains Service will demonstrate the Confi-
dence & Harmony that now Subsists between the Brittish &
french Inhabitants of this Province.

I now Speak to you Yahatatastonake, you are come this day
to take the Brittish by the hand we hope you will be as faithfull
to us as you was to the french. In Confidence of your Sincerity
we receive you into the Great King’s Protection, time will Shew
you & your Nation the Wisdom of the resolution you have taken,
and of the Generosity, Justice & Goodness of the Brittish Nation,
for whom, I hope you, & your Warriors, will return home filled
with Sentiments of Love & friendship.

The Superintendant having thus Ended his Discourse Captn
Aleck, a Leading head Man of the Lower Creek Nation arose &
Spoke as follows.

I am now in the presence of the Governor and Superintend-
ant, the Great Kings representatives. I have heard what they
have Said, I am well acquainted with & have so long hved among
the white people in my Nation that I look upon myself as much
a white as a Red man. I have allways lived in Amity with
the Enghsh & hope to continue so, tho an Indian I am Sensible
that the white people were first sent to our Land by the Will of
the Great Being. They gave me the Name I now bear for which
I ought & do respect them. When I was first called to this Con-
gress, I was prevented from coming by the evil reports which
were Spread all over the Nation. But now I rejoice to find they
were false, & to receive good Talks from the Governor this day.
I was sent from Carolina with good Talks into my Nation, there
are now present the Abekas, Tallepousses & Alebamons, I am
their Elder Brother, & the white Wings which we now present
are Emblems of lasting Peace, & firm friendship, & every one
here is inclined from this day forwards to live in the Strictest
tye of mutual Amity.

I remember when the Superintendant who is my Elder



Brother, Spoke to my Nation at the Congress lately held at
Augusta, I never expected that the Abekas would have seen him
again, but I rejoice to find them together this day. I Likewise
look upon the Governor as my Elder Brother, and shall allways
be happy to receive Instructions from him, whereby I may be
set to Rights When I err, I now have nothing more to Say.

Captain Aleck having ended his Discourse as above, Emis-
teseguo the Mortars Head Warrior arose and spoke as follows.

I am now got up with an Intent to dehver my Sentiments to
you. I have observed that the Admiral, whom I look upon as
a Warrior of the Great Kings, has spoke before the Governor,
who is the King on this Land, and as I am a Warrior in my Nation
as the Admiral is in yours, I will follow his Example & will reply
before my King the Mortar; I received many Messages from the
King of Great Brittain by different Conveyances, and am happy
in the opportunity, I this day have of Conversing with my white
Brethren, I well remember what was Said at the late Congress
at Augusta, all which I faithfully recounted on my return home
to my Nation and In Compliance wherewith I continue to hold
the Enghsh fast by the hand; I observe the Superintendant who
came round by Water, is safe arrived here, & now I will converse
with him again; as we cannot make a Long stay here from our
Nation, we expect that all our Business & Talks will be ended
to morrow : And that the Governor will dehver to us his final

I observe that amongst the white people Friendship is Com-
pared to a Chain which links people together, in our Nation
friendship is Compared to a Grape Vine, which tho’ Slender and
Weak when Young, Grows Stronger as it grows Older.

So it is to be hoped the friendship & Harmony aheady Com-
menced between the Great King’s White and Red Children, will
daily increase & that as they grow up their hearts hke the Ten-
drils of the Vine may be by time more Strongly United & Knit
together. I have nothing more to say at Present till we meet

Then the Mortar arose and Spoke as follows.

The admiral whom I look upon as A Head Warrior, of the


Great King has already Spoke, so has my Head Warrior Emis-

It has pleased the Great Spirit to ordain that I should meet
the Governor & Superintendant, here this day & therefore I wiU
now dehver my Sentiments to them.

This is the Land of the Red people & but very poor; These
white Wings are Emblems of Peace, which I now Present you,
untainted & Spotless, as Marks of my really Good & friendly
intentions; & henceforward you shall hear of no Act of mine,
which does not tend to promote friendship & Harmony. My
Warriors are Striped of their Warhke Implements which are
now all buried in Obhvion, and White Talks daily Increase in
the Nation.

I am the Voice of my People who are all to abide by what I
say or do. I am determined that the Path shall not only be
made white & streight here but every where. I am King &
made such, in order to preserve Peace & good order in my Nation,
& I now look upon the Surrounding White Nations as all United
& Children of the same Family: And as I shall use my utmost
endeavours to regulate & direct my Young People to do nothing
but what is friendly & right, I hope my Elder Brothers will take
the same Steps in their Country.

I understand the Superintendant is going away to the North-
ward. I have therefore held many Talks with the Cherokees,
Chickasaws, & other Nations, but shall henceforward listen to
none but the English.

I have left many Warriors behind in my Nation, as well as
Women, and Children, all whom I expect to find peaceable, &
happy at my return; & when I have conversed with them, you
shall hear from me; but at present it would avail Nothing for
one to pretend to talk about Land, or where a boundary Line
should be fixed, as my people are not all here.

The Talks are now all made White & Good between us & the
White people; and friendship, which is at present but in its
infancy, will daily increase & soon grow up, & then when im-
powered by the Consent of my Whole Nation, I shall soon Settle
all matters of Boundary & every other differences with the Eng-



He then presented a Belt of Whampum which he had kept
in his hand all the Time he was Speaking, one end whereof he
desired the Governor to hold & held the other himself as a mark
of Unanimity and Friendship, and having gone thro’ the same
Ceremony with the Admiral & Superintendant, he gave the Belt
to the Governor.

The Superintendant then Said that he was now to dehver a
short Talk from the Governor of East Florida.

The Governor of East Florida who arrived at Saint Augustine
about the time of my Arrival here, is Likewise charged with a
Talk to your Nation from the Great King George, and has some
presents to distribute amongst you as a mark of the Royal
favour. I therefore now desire you to appoint the time which
will be most Convenient, for you to meet the Said Governor and
me at Saint Augustine. The Object of that Meeting is the same
as of this to remove all differences, and to obviate the Possibility
of future disputes, by clearly defining & ascertaining the Line
that is to devide that province from your Lands; & to enter into
such mutual Obhgations, as will best tend to Establish Peace,
& Harmony, on the most permanent and equitable footing. I
mention this now that you may have time to consult & give a
determined answer before you go away.

The Superintendant then gave a String of white Beads, to
the Mortar, Capt. Aleck, & Emistiseguo.

To which Emistisiguo answered in the manner following.

I would not have the Superintendant depend on meeting me
at St Augustine, as it will be impossible for me, to be there at
the time he mentions, I have always used my utmost endeavours
to preserve peace & estabhsh good Order, but cannot be at the
Meeting at St Augustine. The Superintendant is now about to
return home over the Great Water, where Peace reigns in like
manner as over this Land; but I am going to the Northward &
as I propose going down the Cherokee River as far as the fort at
Massiac, I beg the favour of the Superintendant to give me a
Letter of recommendation to the English Officer who Commands
at that fort, from thence I propose proceeding down the River
to New Orleans, thence to Mobille, cross the Coussa River & so
home again; I am to sett out on this Journey as soon as the



Green Corn Dance is over, I should be glad to be informed of the
particular Rivers upon which the French are forbid to Trade,
as I shall endeavour to be aiding & assisting in preventing &
rriRking prisoners of such of them as I may find carrying on Such
illicit Trade.

And then the Congress was adjourned to the Next day.

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:22 am

Tuesday May 28. 1765.


His Excellency the Governor, John Stuart Esq^ Superintendant

Lieut Colonel Wedderburn &c. &c.

Indian Chiefs Interpreters &c. as Usual.

The Congress being opened as usual, Emistisiguo arose &
Spoke as follows.

This is the day That I & my Elder Brothers the White people
have met, & now I shall Speak my Sentiments to you.

The Eagles Tail which I hold in my hand, is the Custom of
my Country, & spreads hke a Sheet of Paper.

The Governor is Now on this Ground. We are not so Num-
erous as we have been but are the remains of a Great Nation,
We will return home in friendship with the White people, & all
bad Talks, shall be Wiped away.

The Words of Friendship & Peace have began to fall like
Snow on the Ground, they are as yet but thinly Spread over the
Land but as they continue falhng they will soon Cover us over,
& make us all White.

There is now three parts of my Nation here & they cannot
Say but they have heard your Talks, which is like the Eagles
Tail, White, & Covers us all over.

I now sit on my Kings left hand, I hold in my hand the Em-
blem of Peace, what I say are his Sentiments, & that of all the

With Respect to Talks which we shall Send you, or which We
may receive from you none shall be Listened to, but such as
are agreed upon by the meeting of the Head Men.

I have no more to say, but to put the Superintendant in
mind of the Rum he promised us at the late Congress at Augusta,
which we have Often Wished for. And to acquaint him that as
the Women in My Nation are apt to Steal Horses as well as the



Young men, it will be necessary to give them some presents, in
hopes to remedy that Evil, and if that does not produce the
desired Effect I am affraid it is incurable.

The Mortar then arose and spoke as follows.

All I said yesterday was friendly and I propose that what I
say this day shall be so too; there is a great Number of Red men
here present, we are all together in a white house & our Talks
shall be White also.

The Talks sent into our Nation by the Enghsh were all very
good and the Interpreters can inform you that our not being all
met together was the only cause of their meeting with any in-

As to the proposed boundary Line, I acknowledge I did not
clearly understand its situation but am informed by Monsieur
Montbereaut that it runs along by the Forks of the Alibamont
and Tombeckb^ Rivers Oposite to the Interpreters House.

I readily concur in the promise the Wolf King made at
Augusta during the Late Congress held there and am far from
wishing to alter the Line he fixed on that Occasion.

Here the Governor wanted to describe to him the Boundary
already fixed by the Wolf, which he prevented by saying.

If the Peace and Friendship now concluded between the
White and red people continues for Four Years, then there will
be an Addition made to the Lands already granted, but your
exceeding the present Limits before that time will occasion great
Disturbances in the Nation, for that was the real Cause of the
Spaniards being Killed who attempted to settle on the Indian
Territories without Permission.

My Nation are said to be a mad people, but at present I have
in my hand the Tail of the Eagle, the King of Birds which is a
proof of my good Intentions & I hope my Warriors will always
be well used when they come down here.

There are many bad, low white people who spread Bad Talks
thro’ the Nation, but henceforward they will not be listened to.

I understand the Admiral is going away over the Great
Waters; I shall not recount what I have seen here where ever I
go thro’ Different Nations & I hope that hereafter the White
people will embrace the Red people’s Children as they would
their own.



If my People here present have any esteem for me or expect
to be looked upon in the future as mine, they must attend to
what I am now going to say; I will never from this day, quit the
White People or their Interest, and when any of my Young
People come here they shall have no Rum to drink for any but
head Men, and return immediatly to their Nation, for I look
upon the English as my Brothers and hope they think equally
well of me.

It will not be prudent to send a Commissary or Armourer it (to)
my Nation before I have spoke properly to the Young People,
who are very uncivilized and unacquainted with every Kind of
Regularity or good Order, and then I will advise you when they
may be Sent up among us.

I am extreamly glad to find the Path white as it now is &
hope you will always continue to use the Red People well, other-
wise I shall Imagine you have forked Tongues.

I now offer one hand to the beloved Men here Present and
bear the Tail of the Eagle the King of Birds in the other which
I desire they will hold fast and preserve that when any Indians
pass this way, they may know that the Creeks have made Peace
with the Enghsh.

The Talks of this day are now finished, I do not hke to be
tedious or sit long at a time, but tomorrow have something to
mention concerning the Chactaws.

Then Capt Aleck a head Man of the Lower Creek Nation got
up & Spoke as follows,

I have been Silent hitherto this Morning as being unac-
quainted with the Situation of the Lands near this place, for I
am of the Lower Creek Nation. It is true there are but very
few of my people here present, but I think myself Capable of
bearing whatever Talks may be given out here, to my Nation &
I shall accordingly inform you of their Disposition, the Upper
Creeks have ended their Talks, but this is not the last Conversa-
tion I shall have with you, for I intend to meet the Superintend-
ant, at the ensuing Congress to be held at S* Augustine.

If you chuse to estabhsh a Ferry it will make odds to us,
whether it be within or without the Boundary Line ; at the Head
of St Roses Bay, we give a tract of Land, to Mr Forest the Inter-



preter, where if you think proper the said ferry may be estab-

I have nothing more to say at present & now beg leave to
observe that what I have allready Said has been Spoken openly
& above board.

Then the Congress was adjourned to the next day.

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:23 am

Wednesday May 29th 1765.


His Excellency Governor Johnston, John Stuart Esqr Super-

Indian Chiefs & Interpreters as usual.

The Congress being opened the Mortar spoke as follows

You must look upon us as a poor People & your younger
Brothers who are now come to Converse with you, in former
times we were entirely unacquainted with the Customs of the
White People, but since they have come among us, we have
been Cloathed as they are, and accustomed to their Ways, which
makes it at this day absolutely necessary, that we should be
supplyed with the goods in the Nation.

The King of England knows his Red Children are very
Numerous, & must be Cloathed, they are all indigent & I hope
the King, the Governor, the Superintendant & all other White
people are sensible that they are so, & as I have this day con-
sidered the Conveniency of the Enghsh in granting them Land
to plant, so I expect, they will in return Consider me and my
People, This Land was formerly part of our hunting Groimd,
but now many of us, are grown old & Incapable, to kill Deer
enough to purchase Cloathing. We had formerly good Success
in hunting but are now obUged to Cross the Cherokee River for
Game, which Considerations induce me to desire, that as Deer
skins are become Scarce, The Trade may be reduced in propor-
tion, so that we may be enabled to Clothe & maintain our Fam-
ilies, that is to say, that we may be able to buy a Blanket, for
four pound Leather, when we come to Trade at Pensacola; a
Pair of boots for 21b. Leather; a flap for 11b. a Blankett for 6lb.
a Gun for 121b. a Check Shirt 31b. a White 21b. a hatchett lib.
Callico ^ Yd. 21b. as some of their Women are very big. Garter-
ing ^ ps 31b. Nonsopretties lib. Silk Ribbon 2 yds. for lib. Broad



hoes one for 21b. fine Shirts 51b. Rum^ Bottle lib. Leather, Price of
Kettles to be reduced, in the price one pound, Baley Corn &
small Beads 12 strands for lib. Leather, Sixty Bullets for one
Skin, 16 flints for one skin the Quantity of Gunpowder to be
increased from the old Measure, the price of handfs of every
kind to be Lowered lib. Leather, Looking Glasses to be reduced
in the price, lib. Leather. Thick Saddlers Laces, 6 yds for lib.
Leather, Small black Duffles for 41b. Leather, fine broad Ribbon,
to stand as it does, these are the rates at which I expect to Buy
Goods in my Nation: which, I imagine the English can afford to
sell them at, & as their Merchandize arrives here without the
Expence of Land Carriage upon Horses, they can afford to
reduce the prices at Pensacola Still lower. Paint is an article of
which the Red people are very fond and the Traders now in our
Nation only give a httle on the point of a knife for one pound
Leather therefore I hope the Superintendant, will direct a
proper measure for selling Paint, I expect to buy knives at the
same Price at which they are Sold by the White People in the
Woods, if I have omitted any thing I desire that some of my
Warriors may mention it, & if the Trade is fixed upon, the above
footing it will make them happy & I desire that they will im-
mediately restore whatever they may have taken at different
times from the White People.

I shall meet the Superintendant in the Cherokee Nation, &
should be glad to have the Trade in my Nation, fixed upon the
same footing as amongst the Cherokees.

I have reason to Suppose that you do not receive me like a
friend, as I observe all the Flags you hang out, are Crossed with
Red, Whereas I expected to see every thing White, were you to
go into my Nation & see me with all my Warlike Implements
about me you would think of me as I now do of you. here he
ended his Discourse.

To which the Governor made the following answer.

I know that your people are poor, it has pleased God to make
us Richer, than them, & that we shall Supply them with what
they may want as far as we Can and altho’ You have Granted
to the English these Points of Land on which you used to hunt,
yet you may still Continue to do so.



The Trade being reduced too Low amongst you will fre-
quently occasion a scarcity of Goods, no person of any repute
Trades to the Cherokee Nation which was in a great measure
the occasion of the late Cherokee War.

Your endeavours to serve your Country, by Lowring the
Trade, are highly Commendable You have spoke hke a Man, &
as such will no doubt be easily convinced upon hearing our
reasons, that it will be for the Good of your Country that the
Trade should Continue upon the old footing, it is very true some
articles might bare a Little Lowring but those people who, in
time of War, at so great a risque, carryed Goods into your Nation,
must have Proffitts Equivolent, as Trading Licences are granted,
from each province in America, indiscriminately it is not in the
power of any Single Governor to reduce, or Augment the Trade,
in the mean time, however, for your Satisfaction, I will call a
meeting of the Traders to your Nation & Consult them upon
that Head, altho I am well assured that if the Trade is Lowered,
none but Vagabons & runagadoes will go to trade among you.

The Superintendant has long known the Cherokee Nation,
but never yet has found a Trader amongs them Who dare go
down to Charlestown least he should be apprehended, for Debt,
or some missdemeanor.

The Superintendant is going round the different Provinces,
& will Consult the Governors what Steps will be most Prudent
to take in that affair, after which. The Mortar & his Nation shall
be fully acquainted of the final determination of the said Gov-
ernors concerning the Tariff of the Creek Trade.

As to the Red Cross in our Colours, it is no Emblem of War,
but what we allways use, & you have often Seen amongst us.

Then the Congress was adjourned to the next day.

D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:23 am

Thursday May SQtb 1765.


His Excellency Governor Johnstone, John Stuart Esqr Super-

Indian Chiefs, Interpreters as Usual

The Congress being opened with the usual Ceremony, the
Governor acquainted the Indians, that the Superintendant was
now going to reply to the Talks which they had given in answer


to what he & the Superintendant had said to them at their first

He explained the Nature of the Superintendants Office &
his Majesties intentions in the appointment of such an Officer &
then the Superintendant proceeded as follows.

I am now going to answer for the whole. I will first answer
Captn Alecks Talk.

I am Glad to find you in the same Good disposition in which
I left you at Augusta, of which you have given so many Proofs,
during the Course of your Life; the White People must allways
put a Value on your friendship, as the Governor & I ever will,
we are very sensible of the effect, & Influence, your Talks have
had on your Nation, & we desire you may continue them.

We observe the Confirmation of the Grant of Land as far as
the flowing of the Sea, which was made at Augusta and hkewise
the Grant which you have given to the King in favour of For-
rest at St Rose’s Bay, and hkewise the Request of making Ferrys
for your Conveniency and Ours all of which wiU be complied
with in Time.

Some of our People are gone to cut Wood at St Andrew’s Bay
for building here, and have erected a Hutt to cover them from
the Sun, we hear that this has given Uneasiness, and as the Grant
is now pubhckly made and confirmed by your own Consent we
hope no Jealousy will arise for the Future and that Our People
will meet with no Obstruction from any of your Young men.

The Superintendant then presented a String of white Beads
to Captain Aleck.

I come now to answer Emistisiguo’s Talk.

It pleases me much, and as you held in your hand when you
spoke, the Eagles Tail which you compared to Our Paper, and
as your Talk was delivered in the presence of all the Chiefs, so I
hope the Impression will be as lasting & true as if on our Paper,
I am sorry you cannot immediately answer for the Justice of
your People in delivering the Horses, Negroes and other things
belonging to the White People; I am hkewise sorry to hear that
your Women have been concerned in these Depredations; it is
a sign the Evil is grown to a very great head whenever Women
and Children are become parties thereto, nor can it be corrected



by the Chiefs. However we will in the meantime give a few of
such articles as you have asked for, not by way of buying our
own again, as we expect restoration thereof from the Justice of
your Chiefs.

And then the superintendant presented him with a String
of White Beads.

I now Speak to the Mortar.

The Talks which you have deliver’d and the solemn Tokens
of Friendship which you have given us, please us much, as we
sincerely wish upon all Occasions to execute the great King’s
Orders to maintain Peace and Harmony in such a manner that
the Red People may be convinced His Majesty never wished
to disturb them, and that even now when all other white Nations
are at Peace and retired from you and we at Peace with the
whole World, he wishes as much as ever to preserve their Friend-
ship and make them a happy People.

We are extreamly Satisfied with the Land you have granted
to us and our only Reason for attempting to have the Bounda-
ries exactly described is really to prevent all Disputes for the
future, and now as soon as the limits are Described we will set
up Marks and if any white People settles beyond them we shall
never enquire how they came to be Killed.

You may be assured that a Commissary and Gun Smith
being sent into your Nation was intended solely for your Good
& Conveniency, of which you may be easily convinced from the
frequent misunderstanding of Talks in the Nation which your-
self have repeated here.

We shall pay no regard to any Talk that is not held at a
general meeting, and in return desire they may pay no regard
to any Talk that is not Signed by the Governor or me.

You may depend on our Observing what you recommend
in regard to your Young men receiving no rum to drink when
they come down here.

You said you would take notice how your People were used;
I am now going to tell you what treatment they will receive;
the young men will be allowed to bring their Venison and Skins
and sell them to the People here, and get their Guns mended



& some particulars who may behave well will receive some
Powder, shot and such provisions as we may have at the Time
they come; all Justice will be done them, only the Chiefs will
receive any Rum, and we are going to build a House for them.

We expect that, as Lewis Surman has been the Author of
great Mischiefs you will deliver him up together with the Negroe
he has possessed himself of.

We heartily wish aU Happiness may attend You and Your
Nation, but at same time it is impossible that Peace can ever
be perfectly estabhshed unless the Chiefs will concur with us
in bringing the White People in their Nation to Order and regular-

The Superintendant having Spoke as above, & ended his
Discourse, The Mortar Spoke as follows.

I am a King of the Ancient Bear family, the Chief part of
our Talks are now finished & I shall only say a few Words to
you, as it is necessary for the Superintendant to go round &
Consult with the different Governors, so it is necessary for me
to return to my Nation, in order to speak to my people whom
I have left behind.

There are many Traders in the Nation who make it their
Business to spread bad Talks about, & instill evil Notions into
our Minds, a few days ago I heard things among my People
that made me uneasy, but now I am totally satisfied, & hope
the Talks which I have dehvered have been kindly received,
I am going over the Mountains & if I find that your Talks are
the same there that they are here, I shall Conclude from thence,
that a perpetual Peace & friendship is settled with you.

The Superintendant is going away & I am about to return
to my Nation where I will call my People together & acquaint
them with the Superintendants Intention of holding a Congress
at St Augustine & his desire of meeting the Head Men of the
Nation there, & at the same time will do what I can to induce
some of them to go there as to myself, it will be impossible for
me to meet him at that time as I shall be on the other side of
the Mountains.

Then the Congress was adjourned to the fourth of April, [June]




D J Thornton
Posts: 321
Joined: Sat Aug 01, 2015 3:58 am

Re: English Dominion Additional info II

Postby D J Thornton » Tue Sep 11, 2018 5:24 am

Tuesday June 4tt 1765.


His Excellency the Governor, John Stuart Esqr Superintd
Monsr Montberaut, Deputy Superintendant
Colonel Wedderburne & A Great Number of other Gentn
Indian Chiefs & Interpreters as Usual.

The Congress being opened with the usual Ceremony & this
being the Anniversary of His Majesties Birth Day

The following Indian Chiefs were Vested with the Authority
of Great & Small Medal Chiefs, under the Discharge of the
Great Guns of the Fort & those of His Majesties Ships in the
Harbour, & had Great & Small Medals & Commissions given
them accordingly. Vizt

Great Medal Chiefs

The Mortar


Gun Merchant ....
Devols Land Lord

Upper Creeks

Small Medals


The White Lieut

The Beaver Tooth King .

Lower Creeks

Which Ceremony was Likewise attended with fifes and Drums.

The superintendant then gave a Charge to the Chiefs, explain-
ing the Nature & Duties of their respective Offices, & afterwards
presented them to the Indians standing Round, as their Chiefs
requiring there strict Obedience and Respect to them as their

This Ceremony being ended. His Majesties Health was
drunk, & the Congress closed.

A True Copy of the Proceedings at the Congress with the Creeks
at Panzacola.

Arthur Gordon




Text of the Treaty.

At a Congress held at Panzacola in the Province of West
Florida on the Twenty eighth day of May, in the year of our
Lord one thousand Seven hundred & Sixty five by His Excel-
lency George Johnstone Esquire Governor of West Florida &
the Honourable John Stuart Esqr Sole Agent & Superintendant
of Indian affairs in the Southern Department of North America.
A Treaty for the preservation & Continuance of a perfect
Peace & Friendship between His most Sacred Majesty, George
the third by the Grace of God of Great Brittain, France, &
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith and so forth. And the
Several Indian Chiefs herein Named, who are authorized by
the Upper & Lower Creek Nations in their own & their Behalfs.

[Article 1st] That a Perfect and Perpetual Peace & sincere
Friendship, shall be Continued between His Majesty King
George the Third, and all his Subjects and the said Nations
the Upper & Lower Creeks; and the said Nations of Indians
hereby respectively engage to give the utmost attention to
preserve & maintain peace and friendship between their People
& the King of Great Brittain & his Subjects & shall not Commit
or Permit any kind of Hostihty Injury or Damage whatsoever
against them from henceforward for any Cause, or under any
pretence whatsoever, and for Laying the strongest & purest
foundation for a perfect & perpetual Peace & friendship. His
most Sacred Majesty has been graciously pleased to pardon
& forgive all past offences and injuries and hereby declares
there shall be a general obhvion, of all Crimes, Offences &
injuries that may have been heretofore committed, or done
by any of the said Indians : and the several Subscribing Chiefs
for themselves and their Nation, do hereby ratify, confirm and
forever Grant unto His Majesty and Successors the Cession of
the Land made by a Treaty concluded at the Congress held
at Augusta on the 10 *^ day of November in the year of our
Lord 1763 .

Article 2 The Subjects of the Great King George and the
aforesaid Nations of Indians, shall forever hereafter be looked
upon as one people, and the Governor & Superintendant engage
that they will encourage Persons to furnish and Supply the



said Nations of Indians with all sorts of Goods usually carried
amongst them, in the manner which they now are, & which
will be Sufficient to answer all their wants.

3d The English Governor & Superintendant engage for
themselves and Successors as far as they can, that they will
allways give due attention to the Interest of the Indians and
will be readey on all occasions, to do them full & Ample Justice,
and the Said Indian parties do expressly promise & engage for
themselves Severally & for their said Nations, pursuant to the
full Right & Power, which they have so to do, that they will
in all Cases & upon all Occasions, do full & ample Justice to the
English, and will use their Utmost endeavours, to prevent any
of their People, from giving any disturbance or doing any dam-
age to them, in the Settlements, or elswhere as aforesaid, either
by Steahng their Horses, Killing their Cattle, or otherwise, or
by doing them any personal Hurt or injury, and that if any
Damage be done as aforesaid. Satisfaction shall be made for
the same, to the party injured, and that if any Indian or Indians
whatever shall hereafter Murder or kill a white man the Offen-
der, or Offenders, shall without any Delay, Excuse or Pretence
whatever, be immediately Put to Death in a Pubhck manner,
in the presence of at Least two of the Enghsh who may be in
the Neighbourhood where the Offence is Committed.

Article 4th And if any white Man shall kill or Murder an
Indian such white Man, shall be tried for the offence, in the
same manner as if he had Murdered a White man & if found
Guilty shall be executed accordingly in the presence of some
of the Relations of the Indian who may be Murdered if they
chuse to be present.

5th And to prevent all Disputes on Account of encroach-
ments or supposed Encroachments committed by the English
Inhabitants of this or any other of His Majesties Provinces on
the Lands or hunting Grounds reserved & Claimed by the Upper
& Lower Creek Nations of Indians & that no mistakes, Doubts,
or Disputes may for the future arise thereupon, in Consideration
of the Great Marks of Friendship, Benevolence, & Clemency,
extended to us the said Indians of the Upper & Lower Creek
Nations by His Majesty King George the third. We the said



Chiefs & head Warriors Leaders of our Respective Nations
by Virtue & in pursuance of the full Right & Power we have &
are possessed of, Have agreed and we do hereby agree that for
the future the Boundary be at the dividing Paths going to the
Nation and Mobille where is a Creek, that it shall run along the
Side of that Creek untill its Confluence with the River which
falls into the Bay, then to run round the Bay & take in all the
Plantations which formerly belonged to the Yammasee Indians,
that no Notice is to be taken of such Cattle or Horses as shall
pass the Line; that from the said Dividing paths towards the
West the Boundary is run along the path leading to Mobille
to the Creek called Cassaba, and from thence still in a straight
Line, to another Creek or great Branch within forty Miles of
the ferry, and so to go up to the Head of that Creek and from
thence turn round towards the River, so as to include all the
old french Settlements at Tassa; the Eastern Line to be deter-
mined by the flowing of the Sea in the Bays as was Settled at
Augusta, and we do hereby Grant & confirm unto His Majesty
His Heirs and Successors all the Land contained between the
Said Lines & the Sea Coast.

6^^ And as much as possible to prevent all disputes and
Jealousies between the Traders, and the Indians in the Said
Upper & Lower Creek Nations as well as to fix & ascertain the
Prices and Rates at which Goods are henceforward to be
Sold in the Said Nations, that the Indians may not be imposed
upon. The Governor & Superintendant engage for themselves
& Successors as far as they can, that the Several sorts of Goods,
mentioned in the annexed Schedule, shall be furnished to the
Said Upper & Lower Creek Nations at the Rates therein Speci-
fied, and the Upper & Lower Creek Chiefs agree & engage for
themselves and their respective Nations that the Rates at
which Goods of the Said Several Sorts are hereafter to be bar-
tered, for half dressed Deer skins in their Country, shall be as
Specified and set forth in the annexed Schedule.

In Testimony Whereof We the underwritten have Signed
this Present Treaty, and put to it the Seals of our Arms, the
day & year above written, and the Several Kings and Chiefs,



of the said Nations of Indians have also set their hands & Seals
to the Same, at the time & place aforesaid



Toupouye Atche LS







Anabuy Mantla


Oppayre Aljo


Hillabe Tastan-



Yahouly Mico






Effa Ad jo






Paye Oulaghta




Captn Aleck LS
Yahastanake LS
Emistisiguo LS
The Young Lieut LS
Nealatko LS
Coosna NealatkoLS
Nehajany LS
Obaly Ad jo LS

Elfa Mico LS
Tuscay OulaghtaLS
Mico Atke LS
Tostanake Mico LS
Tossycay Mico LS
Wawaugh RyotaLS
Yanatla LS

George Johnstone LS
Gov*" West Florida

John Stuart LS
Superintendant S°

By order of the Governor and

Arthur Gordon Secretary.





2 yds of Strouds for

8 Leather

1 Romall handkf.

2 Leather

1 Blanket

8 do

Saddles according
to Quahty

1 do Shag end

6 “

1 Snaflfle Bridle

4 ditto

1 White Shirt

3 “

5 Strands Barley
Corn Beads

1 “

1 Check do

4 “

20 Strands Com-
mon do

1 “

1 Fringed Housing

10 “

1 Pr Trading Scis-

1 “

1 Laced ditto

6 ‘‘

1 Knife

1 “

1 Pr Gartering

4 “

1 Cutteau

3 “

1 do Dutch pretties

2 “

1 Trading Rasor

2 “

3 yds Quahty bind-

1 “

1 Oz, Vermillion

1 “

2 do Silk ferret

1 “

3 Spans Brass Wire

1 “

1 do Indian Calhco

4 “

1 Pr Ear Bobs

2 “

1 Trading Gun

16 “

1 Large Silk Ben-

4 “

10 flints

1 “

1 Small ditto

3 “

10 Hawks Bells

1 “

12 Pea Buttons

1 “

^ Pint Gun Powder

1 “

Brass \ Kettles no

40 Bullets

1 “

Tin J fixed price

Endorsed Creek Congress — In Govr Johnstone & Mr Stuart’s
joint Lettr — of the 12tli June 1765.


AT A CONGRESS held at the Town of Mobille in the Province
of West Florida, By His Excellency George Johnstone Esquire
Governor of the said Province, and the Honourable John Stuart
Esquire, His Majestys Sole Agent & Superintendant of Indian
Affairs in the Southern District of North America And the
Several Chiefs and Warriors of the Chickasaw & Chactaw Nations.



Tuesday March 26tt 1765.

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