More could be added to this but then we come to an interesting point. There is a long line of academic sceptics ready to pounce on any suggestion that Africans in Pre-Columbian times were capable of being sailors in their own right. This is especially so for Africans sailing the Atlantic and Africa-centred/Afrocentric is the normal label for this. As part and parcel of the anti-Afrocentricism, we find consistent denials that there were black elements in ancient Egypt or ancient Mexico.
It would appear that we are supposed to believe that Egypt was/is severed from the continent it is physically part of; that there is no River Nile nor Red Sea stretching from what is called Sub-Saharan/Black Africa; no sources telling of west Africans crossing the Sahara to Egyptian Pharoahs. As said in another article of mine, if you are predisposed not to find evidence, you not do so or will be ignored if it is found. Put simply, the location of Egypt means that it will have received influences from a wide variety of sources by sea, river, overland, etc and that this will have included much from Black Africa.
An African element in Pre-Columbian Mexico is discussed in Yorubas and the Sea; West Africa & the Sea in Antiquity; West Africa & the Atlantic in Antiquity; Abubakri II: Who He? Numerous references are given there. They include the much-quoted articles by messrs. de Montellano, Haslip-Viera and Barbour and who would dismiss notions of Africans trading between west Africa, the Cape Verde Islands and the Americas. To them can be added what is written by Forbes (1995; 2007).
He has described the reports by Columbus about black traders in the Caribbean as no more than Caribbean Amerinds that had painted themselves black but with little to explain they would have done so. The generally accepted fact of Africans migrating towards Europe and adapting through the years to colder climes seems questioned by Forbes (2007) when doubting that groups from colder climes could so adapt to the reverse that would be called for by north/south migrations. It has been seen that he seeks extensive west/east movement across the Atlantic but wants to do so onl
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