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Names of Skeletons: Where They Come From and What They Mean

Moderators: dpyates, jakayj, suelevin1, dnacommunities, teresapy, janRavenspirit

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dpyates
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Names of Skeletons: Where They Come From and What They Mean

Postby dpyates » Wed Apr 24, 2019 9:13 pm

https://dnaconsultants.com/news/primeva ... s-rollout/

The current news release on DNA Consultants' webpage highlights the subject of names...

PRIMEVAL DNA CONTINUES ROLLOUT
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Roman BritainAs part of the phase-in of ancient DNA offerings, DNA Consultants announced the addition of name pages and other information tools for Primeval DNA customers as well as a line of new tests expected to come on stream in the near future.

Based on ancient DNA Ancestry Information Markers developed by the paleogenetics team led by Eran Elhaik of the University of Sheffield, Primeval DNA was made available in a beta version on March 1. It brings to the consumer market some of the first published ancient DNA genomes. These advances in genomics began appearing in 2010 and now number in the hundreds.

Introductory packages from $99 allow consumers to upload their existing raw genomic data from previous testing or purchase a personal genome testing kit through DNA Diagnostics Center for ancient DNA comparisons. For the first time, people can directly compare the actual nucleotide sequences of their personal genome to as many as seven ancient populations as determined in the genetic and archeological literature.

The first available tests ranged in age from Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Early Europe to Viking skeletons from Iceland, dating to 870 CE – 1070 CE. Most popular has been the Ancient Israelite Test, which features 18 ancient male and female individuals from the three famous burial sites of Motza Tachtit, Raqefet Cave and Peqi’in in Israel.

Raqefet Cave was discovered in 1956, first excavated in 1970-72 and then again for several seasons from 2004 by Israeli archaeologists from the University of Haifa. A Stanford University study in 2018 announced that a 13,000-year-old brewery discovered near the cave’s entrance was the oldest in the world.

A similar burial complex in the Hilazon Tachtit cave site not far away yielded what scientists in 2008 described as a 12,000-year-old shaman.

Planned for release over the next two months are Mal’ta Boy, Minoans and Mycenaeans, Ötzi the Ice Man, Prehistoric Africans, Templar Knights and Crusaders, Anglo-Saxon Warriors, Kennewick Man, and Amazons.

Beginning last year, Eran Elhaik’s team has been building a paleogenetic knowledge-base for ancient people and cultures. Ancient DNA Hub has emerged as a highly respected, easy-to-use resource for the technically inclined as well as for lay audiences, including students.

The wiki-style site is well maintained and organizes a wealth of information on sites, cultures, individuals, lineages, locations, time periods, terminology and references.

As an example of the unfolding detail now possible to explore in the Primeval DNA series is one of the most striking skeletons from the story of Roman Britain. This skeleton corresponds to DNA Consultants’ Hadrian. It is the name of one of seven individuals you can compare your own genome to in terms of genetic similarity if you select Ancient Britons in Roman Britain.

In the ancient DNA wiki, Hadrian is described, though not named, as follows:

“Genetic analysis has shown that most of the people buried at Driffield Terrace were of Western European origin, apart from one unusual individual. Skeletal analysis showed this man was under 45 years old and he was taller than the average Roman. Genetic analysis showed he had dark hair and brown eyes and carried genetic markers indicating he was probably of Middle Eastern origin. This set him apart from the other samples that had genetic signatures more typical of other Western Europeans. He most likely originated from within an area that is currently in the countries of Palestine, Jordan or Syria and represents a unique example of the extremes of migration within the Roman Empire. He carried an H5 mitochondrial haplogroup, which is common in both Europeans and people from the Middle East, but his Y chromosome was more unusual. He belonged to the Y chromosome J haplogroup, which is most common in the Middle East today and also exists more rarely in Southeastern Europe.”

And what about the names? The company website now has 181 of them. In time, there will be thousands.

Obviously, most individuals recovered from ancient sites don’t come to light identified by name. Even their language is unknown and has to be inferred, along with their origins, familial kinship and genetic relationship with others in the same burial site. They had names, of course, but they have not been remembered. So the need arises to give them a modern name for the sake of convenience.

We are told that it was Dr. Elhaik’s graduate students who created the reference names in our series of ancient DNA tests. If that is the case, we must congratulate them. Lucy, with its backstory of the Beatles’ song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” playing in the background at the recovery site of a female Australopithecus in 1974, is a much more evocative choice than AL 288-1. By the same token, Kennewick Man (coming soon) is a catchier name than U.S. Army Corps of Engineers No. 97L. And Hadrian is a better moniker than Driffield Terrace Skeleton 20034.
Donald N. Yates, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator, http://dnaconsultants.com

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dpyates
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Re: Names of Skeletons: Where They Come From and What They Mean

Postby dpyates » Wed Apr 24, 2019 9:31 pm

Here are the names by test...

Ancient Israelites
Gal, Issec, Sarah, Terah, Nahor, Debra, Abraham, Ashkenaz, Meshach, Hagar, Agam, Keturah, Bruriah, Adam, Hanoch, Eber, Haran, Ruth

Roman Britons
Gaius, Hadrian, Virgil, Decimus, Silvester, Sebastian, Flavius

Chumash Paleo-Indians
Leqte, Matipuya, Piyokol, Helek, Seqpewe, Shuluwis, Sulwasunaitset, Tilinawit, Timiyaqa, Qolog, Pilu’law, Konoyo, Silkiset, Kipo’mo, Pititi, Kamuliya

Stone Age Europeans
Bohdanko, Tihana, Astrid, Ambroz, Lina, Sven, Miloje, Elvinas, Maja, Aina, Hagen, Lorelei, Katrya, Gediminas, Rasa, Urte, Tianna, Azuolas, Domantas, Vlad, Aldona, Gorya, Anatolijus, Aleksandr, Ivan, Vesna, Vlado, Borysko, Sava, Camila, Josephine, Mirna, Arno, Vy, Brünnhilde, Balor, Gabija, Anja, Siegfried, Ljubica, Aitana, Zlata, Sneẑana, Agata, Agna, Anzhelika, Arimaspi, Artem, Artemo, Badea, Bauk, Bogdan, Branka, Bronwen, Ciprian, Lidin Lilya, Madalina, Maks, Malina, Matviy, Mihai, Milena, Nazar, osya, Per, Petar, Petra, Psoglav, Renfield, Rodavan, Rolf, SAndra, Sanya, Spiridon, Stig, Synnove, Teodora, Traian, Vera, Zivko

Ice Age Europeans
Anastasiy, Borg, Alberich, Esmetald, Sieglinde, Aeneas, Apep, Clio,Consus, Brigitte, Dagmar, Proserpina, Jarek, Aries, Břetík, Estella, Kriemhild, Luděk, Mime, Oldřich, Pepík, Quin, Valeriya, Venus, Vesta

Egyptians
Seth, Nour, Anubis

Vikings
Om, Arvid, Troy, Grim, Njal, Thranduil, Gandalf, Den, Kari, Calder, Randi, Dag, Bergljot, Eindride, Ragnarok
Donald N. Yates, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator, http://dnaconsultants.com

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Re: Names of Skeletons: Where They Come From and What They Mean

Postby dpyates » Thu Apr 25, 2019 1:24 am

Assigned Names of Ancient Individuals in Alphabetical Order

All names will have an explanatory popup window with brief information in the description of the relevant test.

Abraham (ISR) Adam (ISR) Aeneas (IAE) Agam (ISR) Agata (SAE) Agna (SAE) Aina (SAE) Aitana (SAE) Alberich (IAE) Aldona (SAE) Aleksandr (SAE) Ambroz (SAE) Anastasiy (IAE) Anatolijus (SAE) Anja (SAE) Anubis (EGM) Anzhelika (SAE) Apep (IAE) Aries (IAE) Arimispi (SAE) Arno (SAE) Artem (SAE) Artemo (SAE) Arvid (VMI) Ashkenaz (ISR) Astrid (SAE) Azuolas (SAE) Badea (SAE) Balor (SAE) Bauk (SAE) Bergljot (VMI) Blix (SAE) Bogdan (SAE) Bohdanko (SAE) Borg (IAE) Borysko (SAE) Branka (SAE) Břetík (IAE) Brigitte (IAE) Bronwen (SAE) Brünnhilde (SAE) Bruriah (ISR) Calder (VMI) Camila (SAE) Ciprian (SAE) Clio (IAE) Consus (IAE) Dag (VMI) Dagmar (IAE) Debra (ISR) Decimus (BRE) Den (VMI) Dhampir (SAE) Domantas (SAE) Eber (ISR) Eindride (VMI) Elena (SAE) Elvinas (SAE) Esmetalda (IAE) Estella (IAE) Flavius (BRE) Gabija (SAE) Gaius (BRE) Gal (ISR) Gandalf (VMI) Ganna (SAE) Gard (SAE) Gavril (SAE) Gediminas (SAE) Gorya (SAE) Grim (VMI) Hadrian (BRE) Hagar (ISR) Hagen (SAE) Hana (SAE) Hanoch (ISR) Haran (ISR) Helek (CPI) Issec (ISR) Ivan (SAE) Jana (SAE) Jarek (IAE) Jormungande (SAE) Josephine (SAE) Kallikantzaros (SAE) Kamuliyatset (CPI) Kari (VMI) Katarina (SAE) Katrya (SAE) Keturah (ISR) Kipo’mo (CPI) Konoyo (CPI) Kriemhild (IAE) Leqte (CPI) Lidin (SAE) Liliya (SAE) Lina (SAE) Liv (SAE) Ljubica (SAE) Lorelei (SAE) Luděk (IAE) Madalina(SAE) Maja (SAE) Maks (SAE) Malina (SAE) Matija (SAE) Matipuyaut (CPI) Matviy (SAE) Meshach (ISR) Mihai (SAE) Mila (SAE) Milena (SAE) Miloje (SAE) Mime (IAE) Mirna (SAE) Nahor (ISR) Nazar (SAE) Njal (VMI) Nour (EGM) Oldřich (IAE) Om (VMI) Osya (SAE) Pepík (IAE) Per (SAE) Petar )SAE) Petra (SAE) Pilu’law (CPI) Pititi (CPI) Piyokol (CPI) Proserpina (IAE) Psoglav (SAE) Qolog (CPI) Quin (IAE) Ragnarok (VMI) Randi (VMI) Rasa (SAE) Renfield (SAE) Rodavan (SAE) Rolf (SAE) Ruth (ISR) Sandra (SAE) SAnya (SAE) Sarah (ISR) Sava (SAE) Sebastian (BRE) Seqpeweyol (CPI) Seth (EGM) Shuluwish (CPI) Siegfried (SAE) Sieglinde (IAE) Silkiset (CPI) Silvester (BRE) Sneẑana (SAE) Spiridon (SAE) Stig (SAE) Sulwasunaitset (CPI) Sven (SAE) Synnove (SAE) Teodora (SAE) Terah (ISR) Thranduil (VMI) Tianna (SAE) Tihana (SAE) Tilinawit (CPI) Timiyaqaut (CPI) Traian (SAE) Troy (VMI) Urte (SAE) Valeriya (IAE) Venus (IAE) Vera (SAE) Vesna (SAE) Vesta (IAE) Virgil (BRE) Vlad (SAE) Vlado (SAE) Vy (SAE) Zivko (SAE) Zlata (SAE)


KEY

BRE Britons in Roman Britain
CPI Chumash Paleo-Indians
EGM Egyptian Mummies
IAE Ice Age Europeans
ISR Ancient Israelites
SAE Stone Age Europeans
VMI Vikings in Medieval Iceland
Donald N. Yates, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator, http://dnaconsultants.com

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dpyates
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Re: Names of Skeletons: Individuals from Peqi'in Cave

Postby dpyates » Mon May 06, 2019 6:02 pm

Individuals from Peqi’in Cave
Ancient Israelites Test

Although the excavators make little attempt to flesh out the stories of the bones they uncover, DNA Consultants and its customers are interested in all the personal details. In our popup series, we give links, location, dates and haplogroups. And we’ve begun to go further, where interest is high and conclusions about the skeleton’s age, class, occupation, diet and the like are justified. Below are some new speculations about Sarah, Adam, Nahor, Ashkenaz and Debra. We hope to have more to come soon!

Sarah
In the Ancient DNA Hub, Sarah belongs to the story of Israel from Natufians to the Copper Age. She is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. Sarah’s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E, and carbon-dated to 6200 BCE. Her mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be T2g1a.
Sarah was buried at Peqi’in Cave, a cemetery where the dead were interred in ossuaries – containers which act as the final resting place for human remains. The ossuaries found at Peqi’in were particularly elaborate and would have been made by a skilled craftsperson. It is possible that Sarah was that craftsperson. Firstly, she would have constructed a rectangular box out of clay, before fashioning a matching clay lid. The Peqi’in ossuaries were unique as they had gabled lids which featured realistically sculpted heads and faces, with eyes, ears, noses, mouths, teeth and even beards. Once created, Sarah would have fired these ossuaries, before painting them with red geometric patterns.
Adam
In the Ancient DNA Hub, Adam belongs to the story of Israel from Natufians to the Copper Age. He is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. Adam’s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E, and carbon-dated to 6200 BCE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be K1a and his Y-Chromosomal haplogroup was T1a1a.
Adam was one of the many individuals buried at Peqi’in, but in life, he might have been a farmer. By this period, communities were sedentary, and relied upon a mix of agriculture and pastoralism. Adam was probably one of the many individuals who farmed cereals such as barley, wheat and einkorn, as well as legumes like lentils and chickpeas. Adam would have practiced a form of basin irrigation farming, in which the land is flooded to allow water to infiltrate the soil.
Nahor
In the Ancient DNA Hub, Nahor belongs to the story of Israel from Natufians to the Copper Age. He is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. Nahor’s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E, and carbon-dated to 6200 BCE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be HV1a’b’b and his Y-Chromosomal haplogroup was T1a1a1b2.
The communities that used the cemetery at Peqi’in relied heavily on agriculture and pastoralism. Someone like Nahor might have been a cow farmer, as in many settlements, cattle contributed around 70% of the meat consumed. Cows would have also been used for milk, and as draft animals. Nahor might have used one of his cows as a pack animal, transporting goods from village to village.
Ashkenaz
In the Ancient DNA Hub, Ashkenaz belongs to the story of Israel from Natufians to the Copper Age. He is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. Ashkenaz‘s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E, and carbon-dated to 6200 BCE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be H and his Y-Chromosomal haplogroup was T1a1a.
Israeli communities during the Chalcolithic farmed livestock, and many individuals would have been cattle farmers. Ashkenaz, however, may have bred sheep or goats. These animals were eaten in small amounts, but were also kept to exploit wool and milk. Ashkenaz probably raised his sheep and goats to adulthood, shearing them for wool, which was then woven and spun. By this period, crafts were becoming concentrated in the hands of specialists, and Ashkenaz may have used spindle whorls to create fabric.
Debra
In the Ancient DNA Hub, Debra belongs to the story of Israel from Natufians to the Copper Age. She is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. Debra’s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E, and carbon-dated to 6200 BCE. Her mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be T2+150.
Debra was one of hundreds of people buried at Peqi’in. She might have been an individual of higher status, buried in the jewellery she wore in life. Debra may have worn one of the many pendants discovered at Peqi’in – these were tiny, violin-shaped figurines, made from stone or bone, that would have been hung on necklaces. Debra might also have worn other jewellery typical of this period, including beads fashioned from turquoise or carnelian, or pendants formed from shell or ivory.
Donald N. Yates, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator, http://dnaconsultants.com


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